By Sari Pietikäinen, FinlandAlexandra Jaffe, Long BeachHelen Kelly-Holmes, and Nikolas Coupland
Sociolinguistics from the Periphery "presents a fascinating book about change: shifting political, economic and cultural conditions; ephemeral, sometimes even seasonal, multilingualism; and altered imaginaries for minority and indigenous languages and their users."
EDITORS: Witte, Arnd; Harden, Theo TITLE: Intercultural Competence SUBTITLE: Concepts, Challenges, Evaluations SERIES TITLE: Intercultural Studies and Foreign Language Learning - Volume 10 PUBLISHER: Peter Lang YEAR: 2011
Katie B. Angus, Second Language Acquisition and Teaching (SLAT) Interdisciplinary PhD Program, The University of Arizona
This edited volume is the result of a September 2010 conference about intercultural competence (IC) at the National University of Ireland in Maynooth. In its introduction, the editors, Arnd Witte and Theo Harden, give a brief history of the concepts of culture, competence, and IC. They then provide a list of questions (7-9) that had been supplied with the call for papers to inspire proposals. The following articles are based off of presentations at this conference.
This volume is comprised of four sections which group together twenty-seven articles from authors around the world. The first section, ‘Intercultural Competence: The Broader Picture’, begins with an article written by Michael Byram entitled ‘A Research Agenda for “Intercultural Competence”’, in which he explains frameworks and approaches that can be used to explore different issues in IC and the research questions that should be prioritized (i.e. a survey of handbooks, defining the concept itself, and assessment).
In the second article, ‘Intercultural Competence in Foreign Language Classrooms: A Framework and Implications for Educators’, Darla K. Deardorff relates the results of her research (Deardorff 2006, 2009), which determines a consensus among primarily American scholars about what IC is and discusses practical issues such as identity, how to move students to observe and analyze using the Observe/State/Explore/Evaluate (OSEE) Tool (Deardorff & Deardorff 2000), and the importance of critical reflection.
In the third article of this section, ‘Intercultural Competence: A Phenomenological Approach’, Werner Müller-Pelzer uses the work of Hermann Schmitz (2005) to claim that IC cannot be learned because it is not a skill but rather an ‘organ’ that establishes relationships.
The fourth article, ‘The Perception of Competence: A History of a Peculiar Development of Concepts’, by Theo Harden, discusses the transition from Chomsky’s notion of competence as an innate ability to newer concepts like communicative competence, which is seen more as a skill focusing strongly on linguistic ability, and IC, which has not been clearly defined. Due to its ambiguities, Harden questions the emphasis in the classroom on assessing and even teaching this form of competence.
In the final article of this section, ‘On the Teachability and Learnability of Intercultural Competence: Developing Facets of the “Inter”’, Arnd Witte asks, within a sociocultural framework, whether IC can be taught and/or learned. He enumerates several difficulties with IC: assessment, the simplification of the concept itself, the amount of tacit and therefore unteachable knowledge involved, the context-specific and dynamic nature of IC, and the amount of motivation needed on the part of the students. To counteract some of these difficulties, he suggests a few teaching and curricular organization tips.
The second section of this book is about IC and institutional teaching. Its first article, ‘Does the Revised English MFL Curriculum Give Us Reasons to be Optimistic about Fostering Intercultural Understanding Amongst Key Stage 3 Language Learners?’, by Gillian Peiser, describes texts and interviews with education officials about recent attention to interculturality in the official policy of England’s secondary schools. Using Byram and Zarate’s (1994) and Bryam’s (1997) savoirs, she considers whether the initiatives laid out in these policies will foster IC and determines that they would be successful if teachers truly believe in the importance of IC and are provided with professional development about it.
In the second article, ‘Intercultural Competence: A Major Issue in Foreign Language Teacher Training’, Clarisse Costa Afonsa considers some reasons why teachers might not discuss cultural issues in class, emphasizes the importance of the teacher’s intercultural skills, and explains how a teacher can use a film (e.g. ‘Nowhere in Africa’) to bring cultural issues to students’ attention.
The third article, entitled ‘How to Teach It? Proposal for a Methodological Model of Intercultural Competence’, by Claudia Borghetti, gives a theoretical model for IC, including a graphical representation of how cognitive processes, affective processes, and awareness interrelate. The author also suggests activities for different times in a student’s learning process.
In the fourth article, ‘Can One Swallow Make the Summer? Teaching Intercultural Competence in an English Writing Course’, Mary Georgiou’s study of a university class in Cyprus concludes that while it is possible to have an effect on students’ IC in one course, bigger curricular changes and lifelong learning need to exist in order to create more lasting effects.
Undine S. Weber and Rebecca Domingo, in the next article, ‘Adding Another Colour to the Rainbow: An Attempt at Imparting German Cultural Competence in a South African University Context’, explain the achievements and limitations of efforts to deal with culture in the already multi-cultural South African context.
In the next article, ‘Teaching “Intercultural Competence” to “Generation X”’, Heidi Zojer explains the characteristics of this group of students and how they affect classroom activities and learning. She also explains a few possible activities, such as chatrooms and online newspapers, that can be used with technology to foster IC with these students, but emphasizes that despite their reputation for being technologically savvy and having numerous media options, many students are not able or willing to take advantage of what is available to them.
The next article in this section is ‘Developing Language Teacher Capability Through Immersion Programmes and the Impact on Student Language Learning, Cultural Knowledge, and Intercultural Competence’, by Annelies Roskvist, Deborah Corder, Sharon Harvey, and Karen Stacey. In this article, the authors explain how language teachers have been positively affected by their own study abroad experiences, yet miss opportunities to share their resulting knowledge with students.
In the following article, ‘Measuring Intercultural Competence’, Joke Simons and Yunsy Krols describe their use of interviews and surveys to compare the views of IC in both business and educational domains. Their findings show that IC in the business field is basically regarded as synonymous with language competence and is therefore seen as only relevant to enterprises that conduct business internationally. In the educational field, teachers define IC more broadly, but most still interpret it literally. Based on these results, the authors developed a self-reporting questionnaire to measure different components of IC.
The final article in this section is ‘A Framework for Analysing Observation Data: Language Teacher Provision of Opportunities for Learners to Develop Intercultural Competence’, by Heather Richards, Clare Conway, Annelies Roskvist, and Sharon Harvey. The authors use the Intercultural Language Learning (IcLL) framework to look at the types of opportunities teachers give their students to become interculturally competent. The tool seems to be capable of revealing differences in teacher output, but also reveals that in the observed lessons, there is little to no teacher provision for developing cultural knowledge in students.
In the third section, ‘Intercultural Competence and the Target Culture’, the first article, ‘Intercultural Learning in the Study Abroad Context’, by Kristin Brogran and Muiris Ó Laoire, looks at the linguistic and intercultural development of Irish students studying abroad in Germany. They report overall positive, yet slightly contradictory results, as some students did not exhibit improvements in their linguistic proficiency despite high self-ratings.
In ‘An ILP Investigation of Disagreement Politeness Strategies Performed by German Working Professionals (GWP)’, Sabrina Mallon-Gerland looks at German professionals’ pragmatic abilities in several role play and discourse completion tasks in which they had to express disagreement with people of various levels of power, social distance, and imposition. The fact that participants’ responses are often considered verbose and confrontational suggest that explicit instruction/input could be beneficial to foster interculturally competent language users.
In ‘Learner Identity Construction, Intercultural Competence, and Study Abroad’, Lisa Stiefel provides a brief literature review about study abroad research, focusing on students’ identity, access to the L2 culture, and the linguistic benefits of studying abroad.
Théophile Ambadiang and Isabel García Parejo, in their article entitled ‘Interculturality, Linguistic Culture and Alterity: A Further Look into Intercultural Competence’, write that current conceptualizations of IC are idealized and omit cognitive and communicative aspects.
In ‘Towards the Development of Awareness in Intercultural Communicative Competence: A Tandem Exchange Experience’, Áine Furlong and Fionnuala Kennedy use sociocultural theory to consider the tandem language partnerships of several university students and eventually focus in on one student’s experience in particular. The authors write that awareness is crucial to the development of IC in these partnerships, and that tandem language can provide an important opportunity for meaningful communication and intercultural development.
Thomas Johnen, in his article entitled ‘What Can Cross-Cultural Conversation Transcript Analysis Contribute to the Development of Intercultural Competence?’, tries to show how useful the opening sequences in telephone conversations can be in developing IC in early stage language learners due to its situationally contextualized nature.
The next article, entitled ‘Culture? Communication? The Intercultural? A Comparative Study of Basic Concepts in ICC Education in Germany, Japan, and the US’, by Margit Krause-Ono and Sylvia Wächter, uses questionnaire and interview data to explore conceptualizations by professors and perceptions by students of the terms ‘culture’, ‘communication’, and ‘intercultural’ in Germany, Japan, and the US. While US authors are cited in materials in all three of the countries studied, the conceptualizations and perceptions vary among the countries. Students’ perceptions depend on the models and concepts taught and the culture in which the students live.
In ‘“Eat ye, O people”: The Role of Food, Religion and Hospitality in Intercultural Relations’, Marie Gervais recounts three intercultural food and hospitality narratives to show that situations revolving around food can offer the potential to explore cultural differences in a common space.
Helen O’Sullivan, Gillian S. Martin, and Breffni O’Rourke use conversation analysis in ‘The Irish are Too Polite: Analysing Stereotype and Identity Dynamics and in Student WebChat’ to explain how German and Irish students deal with stereotypes and identity in online chats. Discussing intercultural differences in an intercultural conversation proves sometimes challenging, as the Irish and German students approach the task of discussing stereotypes differently.
Finally, in the last article in this section ‘Aspects of English and German Sociable Selfhood’, Rob Philburn used Goffman’s (1969) ideas of ‘self’ to explain IC as the ability to align aspects of the sociable selfhood.
The last segment of this book, ‘Intercultural Competence and the Role of Literature’, only contains three articles. In ‘Intercultural Competence: A Mirror for Literature? Some Thoughts on Václav Havel’s Play “Unveiling/Vernissage” in Two Guises’, Marketa Goetz-Stankiewicz explains how IC manifests itself in this 1970s play, and its sequel, written thirty years later, through politics, socioeconomic status, and language. Since both plays include the same characters, the audience can easily observe what happens to people when their cultural context changes dramatically.
In ‘Empathy and Recognition: Two Concepts of Intercultural Learning in Literature Teaching with Rafik Schami’s Fable “The Sheep in Wolf’s Clothing”’, Sieglinde Grimm shows how the concepts of empathy and recognition could facilitate intercultural learning through the teaching of literature.
Lastly, in the final article of this book, entitled ‘Current Readers and Intercultural Learning’, Ana Gonçalves Matos offers an argument for the use of literature in interacting with other worlds and developing IC.
The editors began by emphasizing the growing importance of intercultural competence (IC) in language study and in other domains. There have recently been several handbooks dedicated to the topic, as well as conferences focused solely on it, such as the conference this book was a result of, and the biennial conference organized by the Center for Educational Resources in Culture, Language, and Literacy (CERCLL) at the University of Arizona. The topic of IC is particularly relevant and timely in light of the 2007 Modern Language Association (MLA) Report, which framed language study in the post-September 11th world.
The 2007 MLA Report also draws attention to the continuing language-literature divide in foreign language departments. I had hoped that the last segment of this book would bridge the gap and, to a small extent, it did. This section was unfortunately the smallest in the volume, with only three articles addressing the role of literature in fostering IC, despite the fact that the majority of classes that address IC are located in language/literature departments.
In addition to developing an argument for studying IC and explaining the evolution of the concept, the editors provide the list of questions used to inspire contributions to the conference. For scholars, this list offers not only topics for reflection and further research, but could also be used as a starting point for a seminar or workshop for in-service teachers, if not a full length course. The third set of questions focuses on assessment, and even though Byram (1997) has dedicated a whole book to teaching and assessing IC, in our current age of accountability, this question remains crucial and many authors in this volume acknowledge its importance and, at the same time, the difficulty of assessing it.
This volume very appropriately starts with articles written by Michael Byram and Darla Deardorff, whose work about the conceptualization of IC has been the most widely cited among IC scholars. Despite their work, there still seems to be a lack of consensus about what it means to be interculturally competent, which is evident in the remaining articles in this volume, which explain flaws or ambiguities in current conceptualizations of IC and varying ways of assessing it.
This book is of obvious interest to scholars of language study, but there are also articles that could raise points of reflection for professionals in international business. As a teacher and teacher educator, I found several articles to be particularly useful. In addition to the opening list of questions, Deardorff’s article provides a list of questions in the appendix to help instructors reflect about their teaching practices. Borghetti’s article also would help teachers understand what kinds of activities could be used at different stages in a language learner’s development.
Each article is not long, and because of this, authors are sometimes forced to treat their particular subject rather superficially. To get a complete picture of each study, particularly details regarding the data collection methods, the reader must consult outside references. On a very positive note, this book offers a much needed international perspective (called for by Deardorff in this volume), as it explains IC in contexts that are less-typically published about and includes only one article from an author working in the United States.
Byram, Michael, and Geneviève Zarate. 1994. A Common European framework for language teaching and learning. Definitions, objectives, and assessment of socio-cultural competence. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Deardorff, Darla K. 2006. The identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization at institutions of higher education in the United States. Journal of Studies in International Education. 241-266.
Deardorff, Darla K. (ed.) 2009. The Sage Handbook of Intercultural Competence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Deardorff, Darla, and D. L. Deardorff. 2000. OSEE Tool. Presentation at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
Goffman, Erving. 1969. The Presentation of self in everyday life. London: Allen Lane.
MLA Ad Hoc Committee on Foreign Languages. 2007. Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World.
Schmitz, Hermann. 2005. Situationen und Konstellationen. Wider die Ideologie totaler Vernetzung. Freiburg/M:unchen: Karl Alder.
ABOUT THE REVIEWER
ABOUT THE REVIEWER:
Katie B. Angus is a PhD candidate in Second Language Acquisition and
Teaching at the University of Arizona where she majors in Pedagogy and
Program Administration and minors in Linguistics. She is currently writing
her dissertation about the real and perceived professional development
needs of foreign language teaching assistants from the perspectives of the
TAs themselves, language program directors, graduate advisors, and language
program faculty. In addition to teacher education, she is interested in
multiliteracies, study abroad, and computer-assisted language learning.