"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Announced at http://linguistlist.org/issues/17/17-703.html AUTHOR: Knowles, Murray & Rosamund Moon. TITLE: Introducing Metaphor PUBLISHER: Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group) YEAR: 2006
Denis L. Jamet, Department of English and Linguistics, University Jean Moulin - Lyon 3, France.
As mentioned in the foreword (p. ix), Knowles and Moon's _Introducing Metaphor_ is intended as a textbook for ''undergraduate students of English Language, Linguistics, and Literature''. The book comprises a list of contents, acknowledgements, ten chapters, an appendix, a bibliography and an index. All the chapters have the same layout: a short introduction outlining the aim of the chapter and the topics to be developed, the body of the chapter divided into various parts, a summary of the main ideas, and a ''further reading'' section.
Chapter 1, entitled ''Introducing Metaphor'', is an introductory chapter aimed at defining key terms such as 'metaphor', 'metonymy' and 'similes.' The two types of metaphor - 'creative' vs. 'conventional' - are put under scrutiny, as well as the differences between literal and metaphorical language. The authors then present a means of analyzing metaphors, and discuss the principal roles they can play. Chapter 1 therefore serves as an introduction to the rest of the book, insofar as it defines key concepts and gives a comprehensive overview of the main issues to be dealt with in subsequent chapters. The authors underline the fact that metaphor is not restricted to literary or poetical language, but serves a central cognitive function in everyday language and in human thought, as discussed the penultimate chapter on non-verbal metaphor.
Chapter 2 entitled ''Metaphor, Words and Meanings'' focuses on conventional (vs. creative) metaphors found in lexical and grammatical words. The role of etymology and of borrowing is emphasized in two sections. The following subparts focus on the interpretation of idioms and on the possibility of conventional metaphors being 'reliteralized.' Polysemy, core meaning and the highlighting-hiding process at work in any metaphorical process are also examined.
Chapter 3 entitled ''Systematizing Metaphor'' deals with a core issue in the cognitive theory of metaphor: the fact that metaphors work systematically. This chapter is thus largely devoted to Lakoff and Johnson's 'Conceptual Metaphor Theory'. The authors concentrate on the difference between conceptual metaphors and metaphorical linguistic expressions, providing the reader with numerous examples. Stress is laid on the fact that metaphor is a way of conceptualizing abstract notions which could not otherwise be conceptualized. Key-terms related to the cognitive approach of metaphor - and more particularly to Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) - are introduced: 'mapping', 'target domain'and 'source domain.' Various conceptual metaphors are discussed and analyzed, including metaphors enabling the conceptualization of time, emotion and communication (Reddy's famous 'conduit metaphor'). The three categories of metaphor developed by Lakoff and Johnson are also discussed (p. 40-41), as well as the notion of systematicity which, as mentioned in the previous chapter, is a key-notion in CMT. Though the authors also point out the possible limits of such a notion, they eventually decide to use it, by resorting to more general conceptual metaphors. The chapter ends with a brief discussion on the experiential basis of conceptual metaphors (a point which could have been developed in rather more detail).
Chapter 4 entitled ''Metonymy'' first questions the differences between metonymy and synecdoche, a traditional distinction that the authors will not follow, preferring to use only the hypernym 'metonymy'. The role of metonymy in polysemous evolution is examined, as well as the links between metonymy and etymology, metonymy and idioms. The similarities and differences between metaphor and metonymy are also considered. The chapter ends with the systemic aspect of metonymy and its experiential basis (cf. Lakoff and Johnson (1980) and Kövecses (2002)).
Chapter 5 entitled ''Understanding Metaphor'' is devoted to the way we understand metaphorical statements. Different points of view are presented and discussed: first, the neurobiological approach, i.e. the relation between metaphor and the brain; then, the role of metaphor in language acquisition. The chapter goes on to study four main approaches to the understanding of metaphor: the scientific approach (neurobiology), the so-called traditional or philosophical approach (philosophy of language, semantics, etc.), the pragmatic approach, and finally the cognitive approach (conceptual metaphor theory, blending theory). The final subpart in the chapter addresses the issue of corpus linguistics, i.e. text-based approaches to the understanding and interpretation of metaphors. The emphasis is laid on the pivotal role of context. The authors are careful to state the pros and the cons of each approach, which is of interest for people who are not well-versed in metaphor studies.
Chapter 6 entitled ''Metaphor across Languages'' investigates examples taken from various languages to see if metaphor is context/culture-dependent. This chapter is thus devoted to cross-linguistic and cross-cultural perspectives. The awareness of metaphor when learning a foreign language is noted, contrary to the lack of awareness of metaphor when learning one's native language (at least in the early stages). The issue of the universality or culture-dependence of metaphor is then examined through various language items: metaphors, idioms and metonyms in different languages. In these sections, only conventional metaphors, metonyms and idioms are considered. The authors also question the universality of conceptual metaphors, first developed for English by Lakoff and Johnson. Some prove to be definitely universal, whereas others tend to be culture-specific. This enables the authors to focus on the difference between metaphor, thought and culture, with a well-argued reanalysis of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. The viewpoint remains cautious, stressing that it is indeed difficult to support any extreme view of the influence between thought and language. The final part of the chapter focuses on the translation of metaphors, metonyms and idioms, as well as on the various choices the translator is often faced with.
Chapter 7 entitled ''Metaphor, Ideology, and Social Context'' aims at a practical or applied approach as do the two subsequent chapters; indeed, they concentrate on actual uses of metaphors in discourse, i.e. on the ideology of metaphors. The main problem concerns the relationship between metaphor and society, and how metaphors can support beliefs and points of view. Evaluative texts are therefore examined in this chapter - for instance, political narratives (such as the Blair and Brown example). The authors provide examples of metaphors used in the media to influence views held by the reading public. The most frequent metaphors for sports are examined, especially the underlying conceptual metaphor /SPORT IS WAR/ or /SPORT IS FIGHTING/. The same approach is taken to the language of advertising, where the notion of personification is highlighted through the use of the /PRODUCT IS YOUR FRIEND/ conceptual metaphor. The chapter ends with two sections which seem less convincing: ''metaphor and money'' and ''grammatical metaphor'', whose 'softdowning' role is examined.
Chapter 8 entitled ''Literary Metaphor'' examines the type of metaphor traditionally considered to be the most typical type of metaphor. The question of irony is tackled in the section entitled ''Reading between the lines.'' Metaphor is then redefined in the context of literary texts, following the authors' re-evaluation of the difference between tropes and schemes. Metonymy in literature is also examined, together with various topics such as personification, ambiguity (with the examples of punning and Lewis Carroll's portmanteau words--curiously, syllepsis is not mentioned in this part), private and public symbolism, and allegory where the whole narrative is structured around metaphors. The relationship between metaphor, reader and writer is also studied through the concepts of 'implied author' and 'implied reader.' The authors also investigate metaphor in what they refer to as 'popular' fiction, such as detective or mystery novels, where metaphor helps structure the plot. Numerous examples taken from contemporary writers are provided.
Chapter 9 entitled ''Non-Verbal Metaphor'' focuses on non-verbal, i.e. non-linguistic metaphors in various fields, the first of which is cinema; many examples of westerns are given. The world of music also contains metaphors, especially in relation to color. Metaphor in pictorial representation is subsequently examined including photography, painting, pictures in advertisements, notices and road-signs (with a special focus on colors), finishing with metaphors in the names of pubs. A whole part is dedicated to colors and color symbolism, as well as shapes and numbers (with the examples of national flags). Colors can also be associated with emotions and sounds. Statues, monuments and cultural symbols from various countries are also investigated, as well as the metaphors and symbols of some religions. The summary enables the authors to mention other types of non-verbal metaphors found in body language, mime, dance, etc.
Chapter 10 entitled ''Coda'' is short (three pages) and acts as a summary of the authors' intentions. The chapter ends with new examples of metaphors taken from various contexts, emphasizing the interest, richness, and importance of the study of metaphor.
The appendix following chapter 10 suggests research themes for students, and discusses some new viewpoints on metaphor.
The book is thought-provoking and highly stimulating. The core idea of the book can be summarized as follows: not only is metaphor pervasive in all types of language, but also in thought, which is metaphorical in nature. Indeed, our understanding of the world is mediated to a large extent through metaphor, which is one of the most fundamental ways of conceptualizing abstract notions. This ''importance of metaphor'' (title of a section of chapter 1, p. 4) is therefore the main focus of the whole book but the overall scope of the book goes beyond this since the authors investigate various forms of metaphor (verbal and non-verbal), giving a broad overview of metaphor studies.
The shortcomings of the book are few. One possible criticism could concern the authors' overemphasis on the cognitive approach to metaphor, and more particularly to CMT, as developed by Lakoff and Johnson. Yet, the authors sometimes mention the potential limits of the theory (for example, on the radical view of CMT: ''This view is radical. However, it remains a hypothesis, and it is difficult to see how it can be tested methodically at the present time'', p. 73). Blending theory is only quickly alluded to in chapter 5, on page 73. Most striking, however, is the absence of names such as Ricoeur (1975; 1979), or I. A. Richards (1936; 1964), whose fundamental works have played a pivotal role in the contemporary study of metaphor.
Other minor shortcomings can be listed: in chapter 1, in the discussion about literal and metaphorical language (p. 6), catachresis is not mentioned, although it could provide an example of a metaphor which immediately becomes a literal term. As previously mentioned, the part on the experimental basis of metaphor in chapter 3, p. 44-45, could have been developed a bit further, and the last two sections of chapter 7 are less convincing than the rest of the book. Some translations in French in chapter 6 are erroneous, such as the French ''avoir du toit'' for ''(have) a roof over one's head'' (rather ''avoir un toit où dormir'') and ''tendre la main'' for ''give someone a hand'' (rather ''donner un coup de main à quelqu'un'').
On a practical level, the book is well organized and formatted. Each time a new concept is introduced, it is illustrated with relevant examples taken from various languages, and all examples are clearly identified thanks to indentation. Key-words are also written in bold type, which enables the reader to identify the most important terms quickly and easily. The clear layout and presentation make it a very accessible textbook for students. Our only regret stems from some inconsistencies in the use of the bold type used to highlight metaphors. Sometimes bold type is used, but sometimes it is not (for example p. 127-128), and students may find the varying uses of bold type somewhat puzzling.
Despite the few aforementioned shortcomings, Knowles and Moon's _Introducing Metaphor_ remains a valuable and enlightening contribution and, above all, an excellent introductory textbook to metaphor studies, accessible both to people who are being introduced to the study of metaphor for the very first time and to people well-versed in metaphor studies, or just to people interested in the cognitive function of metaphors. Overall, this book is strongly recommended insofar as it is a real contribution to metaphor studies, but also inasmuch as it helps our understanding of the pervasive role played by the metaphors we live by.
Black, Max, (1962; 1968) Models and Metaphors. Studies in Language and Philosophy. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
Goatly, Andrew, (1997) The Language of Metaphors. London & New York: Routledge.
Katz, Albert N., Christina Cacciari, Raymond W. Gibbs & Mark Turner, (1998) Figurative Language and Thought. New York - Oxford, Counterpoints: Cognition, Memory, and Language: Oxford University Press.
Kittay, Eva, (1987) Metaphor; Its Cognitive Force and Linguistic Structure: Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Kövecses, Zoltán, (2002) Metaphor. A Practical Introduction. Oxford - New York: Oxford University Press.
Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson, (1980) Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Le Guern, Michel, (1973) Sémantique de la métaphore et de la métonymie. Paris, 'Langue et langage': Larousse.
Ortony Andrew, ed. (1993) Metaphor and Thought. Second edition: Cambridge University Press.
Paprotté, Wolf & René Dirven, eds. (1985) The Ubiquity of Metaphor: Metaphor in Language and Thought. Amsterdam/Philadelphia, 'Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History of Linguistic Science, Volume 29': John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Richards, I. A., (1936; 1964) The Philosophy of Rhetoric. London - Oxford - New York: Oxford University Press.
Ricoeur, Paul, (1975; 1979) The Rule of Metaphor. Toronto: Toronto University Press.
Sack, Sheldon, ed. (1978; 1979) On Metaphor. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press.
ABOUT THE REVIEWER:
ABOUT THE REVIEWER
Denis L. Jamet is Associate Professor of English Linguistics at University
Jean Moulin - Lyon 3, France. He also teaches English linguistics at the
Ecole Normale Supérieure - Lettres, Sciences Humaines in Lyons, and is
Senior Lecturer of French at the University of Auckland, New-Zealand. He
taught French at the University of Georgia, Ga, USA in 1994-1996. He
completed a Ph.D. dissertation entitled "A cognitive, utterer-centered
approach to the marking of metaphorical lexemes in English and in French"
in 2002. His current research interests include metaphorical studies, as
well as word-formation in English and in French. He is Head of publication
of Lexis, the newly-created E-Journal in English Lexicology: