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Review of  Bilingual First Language Acquisition

Reviewer: Imme Kuchenbrandt
Book Title: Bilingual First Language Acquisition
Book Author: Annick De Houwer
Publisher: Multilingual Matters
Linguistic Field(s): Language Acquisition
Issue Number: 21.216

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AUTHOR: De Houwer, Annick
TITLE: Bilingual First Language Acquisition
SERIES: MM Textbooks
PUBLISHER: Multilingual Matters
YEAR: 2009

Imme Kuchenbrandt, Department of Linguistics and Literature (Romance
languages), University of Bremen


Annick De Houwer's publication is a textbook on bilingual first language
for advanced and undergraduate students from different backgrounds. The book
covers a wide range of subfields in the study of bilingualism, including research
methods, the acquisition of grammatical phenomena, neurological studies on
language processing and word recognition as well as issues of bilingual
socialization. The book aims at presenting useful information both for those who
want an overview over the state of the art as well as for those who are familiar
bilingualism research, but need information about aspects outside their domain of

The author bases her work on numerous studies, covering the time span from the
beginnings of language acquisition research, e.g. Ronjat (1913), Tinbergen (1919)
and Leopold (1953), to recently published contributions such as Grosjean's (2008)
overview on bilingual development and Mattock et al.'s (2008) study on early
lexical tone perception.

Many acquisition studies concentrate on European languages, but de Houwer
makes an effort to include typologically diverse languages, drawing from studies
on Basque, Catalan, Chinese (Mandarin), Dutch, English, Farsi, French (Canadian
and European), German, Hebrew, Inuktitut, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian,
Norwegian, Portuguese, Slovak, Spanish, and Swedish.

The book is composed of a short preface, eight thematic chapters, several
appendices presenting special information linking up with the book chapters, a
glossary of linguistic terms, language and subject indices, and a bibliography.

The preface contains a description of the main goals and the basic structure of the
book. The main text of the chapters is divided into subsections and is further
complemented by 'boxes' that give background information or report on case
studies, illustrating the more general descriptions in the main text. The reader
decide to read or to skip this additional material, depending on his/her interests
and knowledge. Each chapter closes with a summary box, suggestions for study
activities and recommended reading.

In chapter 1, ''Introducing bilingual first language acquisition,'' the author
the basic concepts and main topics of the book. She defines bilingual first
language acquisition (BFLA) as ''the development of language in young children
who hear two languages spoken to them from birth'' (p. 2). As the two languages
are acquired simultaneously, she prefers to call them ''Language A'' and ''Language
Alpha'' instead of ''first'' and ''second language'' (p. 2). BFLA is to be
from monolingual first language acquisition (MFLA), i.e. the acquisition of only
language from birth, as well as from early second language acquisition, where
originally monolingual children start to hear a second language regularly during
childhood, usually through day care or preschool (p. 4). The author addresses
socialization environments for BFLA as well as the question of whether bilingual
acquisition is a common phenomenon. The last part of the chapter is dedicated to
a short history of research in BFLA.

Chapter 2, ''Bilingual childrenÕs language development: an overview,'' sketches
the developmental paths in verbal interaction, socialization, and linguistic
development during the first five years of life. The author addresses the question
of whether BFLA and MLFA are distinct phenomena. Her position is that on the
one hand, BFLA and MFLA should not be taken as a norm for each other, i.e. a
''bilingual is not two monolinguals in one person'' (Grosjean 1989), but as
representing research domains in their own right. On the other hand, BFLA children
show similar developmental paths as MFLA children do. Thus, growing up with two
languages does not obligatorily result in a delayed or otherwise problematic
acquisition process, contrary to the prejudices some people still adhere to (p. 39).

Chapter 3, ''Research methods in BFLA,'' addresses the methodological
background for research in bilingual language acquisition. It provides the reader
with practical information on how to find subjects and on how to collect and
process data. Over the past years, researchers have developed a number of
useful resources and tools. Two of them are the Child Language Data Exchange
System (CHILDES, MacWhinney and Snow 1985, MacWhinney 2000), the largest
online database for child speech, and the MacArthur-Bates Communicative
Development Inventory (CDI, Fenson et al. 1993, 2000), which is a questionnaire
designed to assess early vocabulary development. These are described in more
depth and evaluated with respect to different research purposes.

Question 4, ''Socializing environments and BFLA,'' discusses why not all children
that hear two languages from birth become active native speakers of these two
languages. The author addresses various factors that are very likely to have an
impact on bilingual development. These are (among others) the beliefs and
attitudes of parents, caretakers and the environment about bilingual acquisition in
general and the languages to be acquired, the ''linguistic soundscapes'' (p. 98) in
which children grow up, and the amount of input they receive in each language, as
well as specific discourse strategies that may or may not require the use of a
certain language.

Chapter 5, ''Sounds in BFLA,'' describes how children ''tune in'' (p. 26) to their
language(s). The author summarizes findings both from speech perception and
from early speech production. BFLA children are able to perceive differences
between their languages from birth. However, it is difficult to prove that their
languages differ in production, because there is much variation in the domain of
phonetics and phonology in monolingual children, and the same holds for
bilinguals. Although it might play a role which language-internal properties a
has to master and how easy to perceive the caretakers' speech is, it is still not
very clear why some children are more successful in this domain than others. With
respect to BFLA, De Houwer points out that for the child, at least one of the two
languages is usually represented by fewer adult speakers than it would be in the
case of MFLA. For this reason, individual speech styles or ''local influences'' (p.
175) have a greater impact on the bilingual child's development and may lead to
non-standard pronunciation patterns. It should be investigated carefully if
unexpected child productions are related to specific input properties before one
attributes them to cross-linguistic influences or developmental delays (p. 175).

Chapter 6, ''Words in BFLA,'' deals with the acquisition of the lexicon. Bilinguals
and monolinguals reach the same developmental milestones at similar ages, and
they use the same semantic processes (e.g. overextensions and underextensions
of meaning) during the acquisition process. A popular prejudice concerning the
lexicon is that bilinguals learn new words at a slower rate than monolinguals
because their input is divided between two languages. Studies that investigate the
relationship between input amount and the rate of vocabulary learning show that
there is indeed a correlation between the two, but they also show that individual
variation concerning the amount of input is enormous. A bilingual child surrounded
by talkative caretakers may hear many more words in one of his/her two
languages than an age-matched monolingual child in his/her only language if that
child's caretakers happen to be not particularly talkative. As a group, bilingual
children know as many words in each of their languages as monolinguals do, and
they know even more words if we take their two languages together. However, it
may be the case that, due to input differences, the two languages of a bilingual
child do not develop in a parallel way. Furthermore, it is still under debate
BFLA children acquire one or two lexical systems, even if they usually choose
their words from the appropriate language from early on and learn translation

Chapter 7, ''Sentences in BFLA,'' traces the development from producing single
words to producing complex sentences. Topics that are discussed include the
typical acquisition paths in syntax and the more BFLA-specific questions of
language choice/language mixing, rate of development in the two languages,
cross-linguistic influences and the Separate Development Hypothesis (SDH; De
Houwer 2005). All children start with one-word utterances, which, during the course
of development, gain in morpho-syntactic complexity. Lexicon size seems to be of
importance for the rate at which syntactic structures develop, i.e. children who
already know many words at an early age develop their syntax faster than children
with a smaller vocabulary size do. According to numerous studies, BFLA clearly is
a case of first language acquisition with respect to syntactic development, i.e.
BFLA children and MFLA children essentially progress in the same way and make
the same sort of errors. By contrast, children who acquire another language as an
early second language (starting during their fourth year of life or later)
differ both
from MFLA and from BFLA children in this regard; they make errors that one will
not observe in MFLA/BFLA utterances (p. 291). Another popular belief about
bilingualism is that BFLA children cannot separate their two linguistic systems.
Data from various language pairs support the view that the two languages are
indeed kept separate (this is the assumption referred to as the Separate
Development Hypothesis), despite the fact that bilinguals often have a so-called
'weaker' and a 'stronger' language and may use elements from two languages
within one utterance (language mixing). This last point should not be viewed as a
symptom of unequal language skills and cross-linguistic influence, as the rate of
mixing in child language production seems to depend on the caretakers' verbal
behaviour. From about two and a half years on, children are able to repair
inappropriate language choices.

Chapter 8, ''Harmonious bilingual development,'' offers a more global view on early
child development in a bilingual setting and addresses popular myths concerning
bilingualism. The author emphasizes that hearing two languages from birth does
not necessarily lead to the complete acquisition of two first languages, nor
does it
mean that children get confused or suffer psychologically. Linguistic or
psychological problems may arise, and they may be intensified by the bilingual
setting, but they are not triggered by the mere fact that a child acquires two
languages instead of only one. De Houwer's general conclusion is that ''... young
children are fully equipped to learn more than one language from early on'' (p.
but she concedes that there is still much work to be done until the relevant
for (non-)harmonious bilingual development are fully understood.


Annick de Houwer grew up as an obviously happy bilingual herself, therefore it is
not astonishing that she has quite an optimistic view on bilingualism. Still, she
does discuss critical aspects of bilingual development that lead caretakers or
paediatricians to give parents inappropriate advice, to such as stopping the use
both languages with the child. It becomes clear that, for research and therapy
purposes, one should distinguish bilingual acquisition itself from socialization
in a
bilingual environment, because if developmental problems arise, they are rather
unlikely to originate from neurological or linguistic factors, and ceasing to speak
one of the two languages will therefore not solve the problems. Of course, a neat
separation is impossible in everyday life, because a child cannot acquire language
without social interaction.

One might ask whether the definition of bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA)
used throughout this book is perhaps too narrow. The author only takes into
consideration children who hear two languages from birth. Recent studies show
that early second language (L2) acquisition may resemble first language (L1)
acquisition and differ from adult L2 acquisition as long as children start
their second language around the middle of their forth year of life or earlier
e.g., Meisel (2009) and the subsequent discussion within the same volume).
Indeed, de Houwer does mention this point in chapter 7. I think it is still
to use the strict definition of BFLA, because her book is not exclusively concerned
with morpho-syntax (unlike Meisel's and his colleagues' contributions), and to my
knowledge it is still far from evident where the critical periods in the
subdomains of
phonetics, phonology, word formation or semantics/pragmatics lie. Furthermore,
adhering to the narrower definition is fully in line with her advice of keeping
research methods as simple and as transparent as possible.

One potential point of criticism is that the description of language acquisition
respect to linguistic subfields such as phonology or syntax remains rather
superficial, and sometimes the presentation seems to be a bit simplistic. For
instance, in chapter 5 I miss a more explicit comment on language universals in
phonology and on the fact that all children start with the unmarked, typologically
wide-spread inventories and structures before they proceed to complex and more
language-specific structures. If one wants to test whether BFLA children develop
two distinct phonological systems, one has to look for the right things in the
place, i.e. one has to make sure that the children are no longer restricted to the
unmarked, universal structures within the domain of interest (see Paradis 1996 for
a demonstration of where and how to find evidence in early phonological

Especially in the case of phonology, it could be very helpful to check if
corresponding monolingual children show cross-linguistic differences, because as
long as they do not, it is highly unlikely to find cross-linguistic differences
in BFLA.
Although I generally agree with de Houwer's claim that MFLA should not be taken
as a norm for BFLA, a look at data from MFLA can help to avoid unnecessary
misjudgements in BFLA research. Overall, however, ''Bilingual First Language
Acquisition'' offers a wide range of relevant and intriguing information, and the
interested reader may rely on the comprehensive bibliography for further reading.

I find De Houwer's book both easy to read and handy to use, thanks to the
coherent thematic structure and the neat layout. Each chapter could be used as a
basis for a learning unit, perhaps divided over several lessons in some cases. The
study activities she suggests are formulated as precise tasks; many of them could
be used as homework assignments or as classroom activities in a course on
bilingual language acquisition. However, she does not formulate model answers,
which in many cases would be impossible anyway. The author writes in a slightly
informal style without abandoning an essentially serious tone. Overall, her book
fully meets the goal it is designed for: presenting a good of BFLA research topics
and findings in a format that is suitable as an introductory reading and as a
practical guide to research methods in this field.


DE HOUWER, A. (2005). Early bilingual acquisition: Focus on morphosyntax and
the Separate Development Hypothesis. In KROLL, J. F. & A. M. B. DE GROOT
(eds.), Handbook of Bilingualism: Psychological Aspects, 30-48. New York: Oxford
University Press.

(1993). MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories: User's Guide and
Technical Manual. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.

(2000). MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) (2nd
edition). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.

GROSJEAN, F. (1989). Neurolinguists, beware! The bilingual is not two
monolinguals in one person. Brain and Language, 36, 3-15.

GROSJEAN, F. (2008). Studying Bilinguals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

LEOPOLD, W. (1953). Patterning in children's language learning. Language
Learning 5, 1-14.

MACWHINNEY, B. (2000). The CHILDES Project: Tools for Analyzing Talk (3rd
edition). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

MACWHINNEY, B. and C. SNOW (1985). The child language data exchange
system. Journal of Child Language 12, 271-295.

developmental course of lexical tone perception in the first year of life.
106, 1367-1381.

MEISEL, J. (2009). Second language acquisition in early childhood. Zeitschrift fr
Sprachwissenschaft 28, 5-34.

PARADIS, J. (1996). Phonological differentiation in a bilingual child: Hildegard
revisited. Proceedings of the Boston University Conference on Language
Development 20, 528-539.

RONJAT, J. (1913). Le d‚veloppement du langage observ‚ chez un enfant bilingue.
Paris: Champion.

TINBERGEN, D. (1919). Kinderpraat. De Nieuwe Taalgids, 13, 1-16/65-86.


Imme Kuchenbrandt is a former member of the Research Centre on Multilingualism
at the University of Hamburg (Germany), where her work forcused on the early
bilingual acquisition of Spanish and German at the phonology-morphology
interface. Currently, she is a lecturer at the University of Bremen (Germany), with
a specialization in French-German contrastive linguistics.
ABOUT THE REVIEWER Imme Kuchenbrandt is a former member of the Research Centre on Multilingualism at the University of Hamburg (Germany), where her work forcused on the early bilingual acquisition of Spanish and German at the phonology-morphology interface. Currently, she is a lecturer at the University of Bremen (Germany), with a specialization in French- German contrastive linguistics.

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