The Cambridge Handbook of Communication Disorders examines the full range of developmental and acquired communication disorders and provides the most up-to-date and comprehensive guide to the epidemiology, aetiology and clinical features of these disorders.
EDITOR: Goodfellow, Anne Marie TITLE: Speaking of Endangered Languages SUBTITLE: Issues in Revitalization PUBLISHER: Cambridge Scholars Publishing YEAR: 2009
Lorena Cordova, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, Mexico City, Mexico.
This book consists of twelve case studies through which we learn about various innovative research endeavors and/or challenges faced by the contributors, most of whom focus on educational programs dealing with the maintenance and linguistic forms of retention of some Native North American or Polynesian languages, in order to promote language revitalization (LR).
In the first chapter, the 'Introduction', Goodfellow provides a starting point for understanding and analyzing the chapters of 'Outside Experts' (i.e. linguists/activists not native to the communities in question), 'Insiders' (i.e. native linguists/activists of the communities in question), and other contributors (i.e. some are natives of the communities and others are not) about the different ideologies and attitudes found in academic and social fields toward LR.
At first, Goodfellow recognizes that LR is a form of research which is not reduced to 'linguistic social work', as Paul Newman (2003) has stated; on the other hand, the work of linguists and anthropologists on endangered languages is a type of research that considers the contexts of language use and 'Participatory Action Research' (PAR). Paraphrasing Peter Reason (1994), the PAR strategy has a double objective; to produce knowledge and action directly useful to a group of people (through research, adult education, and sociopolitical action), and to empower people at a deeper level through the process of constructing and using their own knowledge. With her tendency to favor PAR, Goodfellow argues for linguistic research exercises that encourage participation and change in the social situation of endangered languages and their disagreement with the more orthodox research that only focuses on language documentation to implement the description of a linguistic system (cf. Flores Farfán and Ramallo, 2010).
Goodfellow also provides a detailed analysis of the historical development of LR and mentions the relevance of contact situations when analyzing changes in the use of languages (e.g. pidgins, creole languages, etc.). With regard to language planning and standardization of endangered languages, the author suggests the necessity for revitalization and maintenance of indigenous languages so they do not reproduce forms of “Self-colonizing” (p. 7). As such, achieving maintenance and ways of learning the endangered languages not based on colonialist education policies and practices are at the forefront of the discussion. With this perspective, Goodfellow also advocates an approach for dealing with ideologies (e.g. purism, prescriptivism, etc.) that have permeated the development of language planning and its standardization, as well as metaphors developed for conceiving languages (e.g. the biological metaphor, bounded entities, and the ecological metaphor).
In Chapter Two, 'Multilingual Pasts and Futures: An Examination of Language Shift at Fort Belknap Reservation, Montana', Mindy J. Morgan discusses studying displacement processes and language shift within a reservation in North-Central Montana, USA, where two Indian languages and English share a geography. She also mentions the possibility of LR of the first two languages: Nakoda (Siouan family) and Gros Ventre (Algonquian Family). This can be done through the efforts of the Fort Belknap community, in coordination with national institutions and the state of Montana, to develop, for example, programs influenced by the Total Physical Response (TPR) method within which language teaching is realized through certain classes with instructors and “elders”, regarded as “fluent speakers”, emphasizing the practical use of the language while momentarily setting aside grammatical aspects. This perspective has emerged in order to protect traditional knowledge and cultural practices. Overall, indigenous languages are not seen as a replacement for English. The goal is for both English and indigenous languages to co-exist and have specific and determined “usages”.
This chapter also takes a brief look at different historical processes that both tribes, Assiniboine (i.e. Nakoda Language speakers) and Gros Ventre, encountered. There is mention of linguistic shifts, which began to occur in both the Assiniboine and Gros Ventre groups in the late nineteenth century, when both were forced to be located around military bases and make tax payments in exchange for protection. Also, since the institutionalization of forms of government, religion, and education, English gradually became the dominant language and created changes in social roles. The chapter also talks about multilingual environments. For example, the Assiniboine established commercial networks and social alliances with other tribes, in both the USA and Canada (e.g. Sioux, Cree, etc.), even before the establishment of the Fort Belknap Reservation. In the seventeenth century, these relationships were crucial to negotiations between European traders and other tribes. In the case of Gros Ventre, multilingualism is due to contact and proficiency with the Blackfoot. However, outside the tribe, the Gros Ventre’s knowledge is reduced, probably because of the difficulty or complexity of the language. Although there is little documentation about the Gros Ventre, it is known that both tribes and communities interacted in multilingual environments even before European contact.
The author also refers to how English became the first language (L1) of children while growing up at the reservation. Finally, the chapter briefly analyzes the various educational programs in indigenous languages on the reservation (which began in 1960) and current community efforts to revitalize languages and strengthen their culture through specific educational methodologies, production of materials, classes, and workshops.
In Chapter Three, 'Prospects for the Navajo Language', Evangeline Parsons-Yazzie and Jon Reyhner present a historical, social and educational framework on language shifts in the Navajo language (Athapascan language) and its speakers, the Diné (Navajo), when competing with English, mainly in California, Arizona and New Mexico. The authors describe some important historical events, such as the nineteenth century ''Long Walk'', in which more than 8,000 Navajos suffered from starvation due to a prolonged campaign of burning land. At that time, the Navajo were also forced to walk hundreds of miles to a reservation on the border of Texas and New Mexico, where they remained captive in famine conditions due to the reduction of livestock, economic dependence, etc. In the early 1950s, the government began to promote the ''Urban Indian Relocation Program'', and on first of June, 1968, the Navajo were allowed to return to their homes.
In education, there were attempts to allow thirty Navajo children into English education programs. Beginning in the early 1930s, Navajo children were forced to attend education and literacy development programs at boarding houses. This led to the separation of children from their families, which in turn created disruption in their primary socialization and devastation in the life and culture of Navajo families. The increasing educational and economic changes in the second half of the twentieth century began with a rapid linguistic shift, which led to an increased stigma toward the Navajo. In 1960, the first school controlled by the Indians, with the intention of creating a program of bilingual and bicultural education for Navajo children, was initiated. Despite changes in the type of education, after four decades, most schools of this kind are still promoting an assimilationist curriculum or transitional bilingualism. However, the authors also mention the struggles and educational strategies that have been made to maintain the Navajo language and culture, as well as create new opportunities for using and reformulating the educational system as one of the basic means for LR, where the speakers (including elders) are not outside their nursing education and revitalizing programs.
Chapter Four, 'Aboriginal Languages and Literacies: A Reflection on Two Cases', is a comparative analysis by Barbara Burnaby performed on the historical, economical, linguistic, educational, and labor differences and similarities, among others, of two aboriginal groups living in Labrador (the easternmost part of the mainland of the North American continent), in Northeastern Quebec, Canada: the Innu (Innu-aimun speaking group) and the Inuit (Inukut speaking group). The analysis shows how both groups have experienced different forms of adaptability and understanding of communication with groups of European origin with whom they have had contact, and how these different levels of interaction have resulted in varying degrees of displacement. The author also discusses different levels of maintenance and revitalization efforts by each group.
In Chapter Five, 'Language Maintenance in a Cree (Mushkegowuk) Community', John S. Long and Jim Hollander show how, despite the fact that the role of schools has weakened or displaced indigenous languages through the imposition of the 'English Immersion Program' and the deprivation of Cree as a language of communication in the school, the community of Kashechewan (Northeastern Ontario, Canada) and the Mushkegowuk people are getting stronger from taking control of the community school system (1989). This enables us to rethink the role of English and the Cree language in the classroom. The authors conduct an extensive tour of the educational programs developed by various Christian religious groups (e.g. non-Catholic institutions such as the Anglican Church, the so called “Christians” (i.e. Evangelicals), and a Catholic order called “The Oblats”) and the Canadian federal system. The authors also show how the Cree syllabic system has become an identity marker in Cree, and how they have re-appropriated the 'cooperative system' of education.
In Chapter Six, 'Yours, Ours, and Mayan: Cultural Preservation in San Cristóbal de la Casas, Chiapas, México', Cristina Abreo provides an overview of the ways, in contexts of migration from indigenous-rural areas to the city, in which different social and indigenous organizations have launched educational, political, and social projects for the preservation of indigenous languages (e.g. Tzotzil, Tzeltal, Chol, etc.), as well as the promotion of the 'cultural identity Maya' in the city of San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, done through a movement that she calls 'Pan-Mayan'.
Throughout the chapter, Abreo shows the shortcomings of the Bilingual Education Program of the Mexican government for indigenous people. Then she addresses the various factors that have driven the migration of the indigenous population to the city of San Cristóbal and the process of unification of urban indigenous groups that aims to defend and promote their languages and cultures, not only through social organization, but also through the institutionalization of language as a subject of study for both indigenous as well as non-indigenous researchers.
In Chapter Seven, 'The Reintroduction of Nahuatl into the Aztec Dance Tradition in New Mexico', George Ann Gregory refers to three communities from Albuquerque, New Mexico that migrated from Central and Northern Mexico to the United States over 400 years ago. They are making efforts to revitalize the Nahuatl language (Uto-Aztecan language) through the re-creation of traditional stories via dance, song, and theater, all of which include the use of Nahuatl by adults. These efforts have been enriched through networks that have been established with Nahuatl speakers from Central Mexico. Gregory employs Joshua Fishman’s Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (GIDS) (2001) to illustrate the results of reintroduction efforts of Nahuatl in New Mexico. Like the Richter Scale in Geology, the Fishman Scale is characterized by eight stages or degrees. The most advanced stage, on a scale of 1 to 8, means a higher degree of disruption or displacement of intergenerational transmission of language. According to Gregory, Nahuatl in New Mexico is at Stage 8; “The reintroduction is beginning with adults” (p. 150). In this sense, expectations begin to exist to achieve a small degree of linguistic reversion so that the Nahuatl language moves to Stage 7 after Nahuatl people from New Mexico visit Mexico. Furthermore, the presence of children in the ‘Kalpullin’ (community) will help the transmission of language. The author provides a description of how passion, persistence and personal commitment of the participants are the key to keeping the revitalization effort moving forward.
In Chapter Eight, 'Creating Our Future: Creating a Computer Corpus of Written Choctaw', George Ann Gregory proposes the construction of a computational corpus (standardized and on-line) that contains various written materials of both ancient and contemporary Choctaw (Muskogean family of languages) in Oklahoma. The main idea is to reconnect with the past via the current use of language by creating a spiritual dimension to resume the process, and to enter into the realm of old Choctaw concepts through written language. The proposal also seeks to facilitate linguistic analyses for researchers and specialists, especially since there is fragility in the language due to the low intergenerational transmission and the death of older, fluent speakers. However, the author also presents challenges to overcome in building the corpus, such as ways to encourage learners to observe the Choctaw language as a marker of identity, despite their sub-tribal affiliation, in order to ''speak with one voice'', as one people.
In Chapter Nine, 'A Language to Call My Own', Hana O' Regan shows a new perspective on the challenges that have faced the process of revitalization of different sociolinguistic contexts of Te Reo Mäori (the Mäori language) and the emergence and development of 'The Kai Tahu of the South Island of New Zealand', which is not restricted to the description of 'language nests'. These language nests are part of a program of language teaching through total immersion. This program introduces children to language in environments that relieve the method in which only the endangered language is spoken. This program has the aim of children gradually acquiring the language. Generally, texts that address the revitalization of the Mäori language only describe the process of language nests and/or success achieved from this program. However, as the author points out, in the process of revitalization, not all Mäori regions have had the same degree of success. For example, O’Regan mentions the challenges that Mäori people have had to face in adapting the Mäori language to a new lexicon through contact with English. The transliteration of English words allowed development of the language, which also allows some maintenance. The author does not describe a single plan of revitalization strategy, but rather revitalization experiences that have been systematized and evaluated, which can be revisited throughout the chapter.
Chapter Ten, 'It Takes a Community to Revitalize a Language: Honoring the Contributions of All', is a socio-historical tour of the displacement process and the revitalization efforts tied to the Rapa Nui language (Polynesian language) in Easter Island (Chile). Marta Hotus Tuki advises that the process of revitalization of this language should be done through initiatives arising from within the community of speakers of Rapa Nui, and must stop relying solely on anthropologists, linguists, or the Chilean government. One example she mentions is the process that a group of women from the island has been taking part in since 1994. Rapa Nui women, members of different social classes and with different occupations, began to develop competitions to promote Rapa Nui writing. Also, they are promoting the island’s survival via “self-determination” amongst Rapa Nui people. However, the Rapa Nui women faced different barriers (e.g. political, economic, educational, etc.) or obstacles in their LR efforts. In this chapter, these barriers are analytically seen as a relevant factor in the efforts that are being projected for the future.
In Chapter Eleven, 'Native Language Education and Participatory Research: The Lummi Tribe of the Pacific Northwest', Michael A. Shepard presents a methodology designed and an epistemological dimension used in the 'Community Perception of Language Project' (2005-2007) conducted in the Lummi territory (Northwest Washington State).
The author introduces us not only to the Coast Salish language shift (Salish Family), but also to the Native Language Revitalization Movement. Also, the author explains Participatory Action Research (PAR), a methodology that is a tool of applied anthropology, as well as Grounded Theory, which “is used to determine relevant themes from transcript data to make conclusions and/or develop theories that are grounded in those data” (p. 221). The proposals submitted by the author, therefore, are reinforced by the perception of project participants, most of whom are indigenous language learners. Finally, throughout the text, the author justifies the need for Culturally Based Education (CBE) and the creation of a Lummi committee that would create a comprehensive plan for LR efforts.
In Chapter Twelve, 'Relearning Athabascan Languages in Alaska: Creating Sustainable Language Communities through Creolization’, the reader sees an invitation to relearn the Dena'ina language (Athabascan language) in Alaska. Gary Holton’s perspective not only proposes the continuation of an existing form of language, but also is interested in learning and promoting new forms of transmission. Holton calls for developing an 'Athabascan Creole' to help promote emerging varieties in revitalization programs and to begin to put aside intolerance toward new Dena'ina language varieties, which can have a restrictive effect.
Throughout the chapter, the author not only refers to the Dena'ina sociolinguistic changes which have taken place due to contact with English, but also shows a general analysis of the processes of creolization that are affecting the Dena'ina language, and thus makes an important proposal to simplify the (re)learning of Dena'ina as a second language (L2). According to the author, the first step is to recognize that linguistic change is a natural aspect of the revitalization process. The second step is analyzing the simplification of verbal morphology. The third step has to do with recognizing the differences between the dialectal varieties that are learned (dialectal homogeneity/ dialectal fusion). Finally, the last step is to put creolization into practice in order to make Denai’ina revitalization a viable process.
Finally, Chapter Thirteen, 'A Community-Based Language Gut'sala Language Program', refers to the challenges encountered by members of the community of Quatsino (Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada) to develop materials for a curriculum in their language, Gut'sala (Kwak'wala-Wakashan language family).
The author, Anne Marie Goodfellow, refers to the sociolinguistic situation in which Gut’sala, which mostly has only older speakers, has a strong influence of English in its internal structure. Also, the author explains the history of the Kwakwaka'wakw group, who has lived in this traditional territory at least 8,000 years. The main purpose is to observe some aspects of language shift in a natural way so that the efforts of LR are not in vain. That is, efforts must be directed toward maintaining the languages as they exist in the present, and from there, create learning programs based on community practices.
The issue of revitalization and maintenance of minority languages has been, and remains, an important issue for researchers, activists, and defenders of 'biocultural diversity' (cf. King, 2003). A book that presents the current efforts being put forth in some apprenticeship programs is very important. Also, work that shows cases that seek to innovate issues often addressed in the field of revitalization, as some contributors do in this book, represents a 'must see' bibliography. The manner in which the contributors have addressed various social and linguistic situations make this book a major teaching resource for both specialists in indigenous languages and the general public interested in LR.
In general, the articles are an important reference for learning and understanding the LR efforts being made in a variety of Native North American and Polynesian languages. While most of the articles focus on the revitalization efforts within the school curriculum, one can find interesting examples of serious and innovative analyses and proposals for LR. In agreement with Morgan, in this book, we see that “…paradoxically, where schools once aggressively banned the use of indigenous languages, they are new primary sites for its continuation” (p. 41).
However, although several cases are mentioned where indigenous groups have begun to take control of the formal education of their children and thus have been able to influence the construction of teaching materials and the educational curriculum itself, in the articles, one cannot perceive the true revitalization potential of schools. Throughout the book, most authors mention the processes that different autochthonous groups have experienced through speaking their own languages, the degree of displacement those languages have, and the actions they have undertaken to reverse or improve this situation. Unfortunately, most of them are only making proposals on how a revitalization process should be undertaken but fail to show systematic evaluations of the experiences so far.
Despite what I have said above, it is necessary to highlight the great contributions that are made by several chapters. For example, Chapter 1, by Goodfellow, is important for those interested in the issue of endangered languages because the author provides a fairly comprehensive report on the issue of LR and the ideologies developed around language as an intervention object for its revitalization. In Chapter 9, O’Reagan presents a fine analysis of the processes of Mäori LR in Southern New Zealand, and, unlike many texts on the Mäori, this chapter not only addresses the implementation of language nests as revitalization programs, but also addresses the planning and redirection of revitalization strategies at the community level. Also, Holton, in Chapter 12, proposes a new form to potentiate the language shift and the process of creolization for endangered languages and their revitalization.
In general, within the works that make up the book, language shift for the displacement of languages is considered an accelerated process that worries people, especially activists and scholars. However, for the authors, there are many other changes that endangered languages have been undergoing in the context of sociolinguistic contact with European languages, such as Spanish, English or French. This change is a natural and irreversible process, and specifically, is a very valuable resource for revitalization efforts. Most of the authors involved in this book call for not stigmatizing these changes that have coexisted within the everyday use of languages and call for the need to recognize that new generations will learn to use a new style or variety of language. However, it does not mean that these generations’ identity and social cohesion must be threatened. This call to look at linguistic shift through a different lens is the greatest contribution produced in this book on the revitalization of languages.
Fishman, Joshua. 2001. From Theory to Practice (and Vice Versa): Review, Reconsideration and Reiteration. In Fishman, Joshua, Can Threatened Languages be Saved? Reversing Language Shift, Revisited: A 21st Century Perspective. Pp. 451-483 Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Flores Farfán, José A. and Ramallo, Fernando (ed.). 2010. New Perspectives on Endangered Languages: Bridging gaps between Sociolinguistics, Documentation and Language Revitalization. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
King, Linda (Coord.). 2007. Compartir un mundo de diferencias: La diversidad lingüística, cultural y biológica de la tierra. Barcelona: Angle Editorial.
Newman, Paul. 2003. The Endangered Languages Issue a Hopeless Cause. In Mark Janse & Sijmen Tol (eds.), Language Death and Language Maintenance. pp. 1-13. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Reason, Peter. 1994. Three approaches to participative inquiry. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.). Handbook of Qualitative Research. pp. 324-339. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
ABOUT THE REVIEWER
ABOUT THE REVIEWER:
Lorena Cordova is a PhD Student in Anthropology at Centro de
Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, Mexico City,
Mexico. She is working on her doctoral thesis about Language
Revitalization, in particular, how to create strategies and educational
materials for children in order to promote the Language Revitalization of
the Chuj Maya language in Mexico.