Publishing Partner: Cambridge University Press CUP Extra Publisher Login
amazon logo
More Info

New from Oxford University Press!


Oxford Handbook of Corpus Phonology

Edited by Jacques Durand, Ulrike Gut, and Gjert Kristoffersen

Offers the first detailed examination of corpus phonology and serves as a practical guide for researchers interested in compiling or using phonological corpora

New from Cambridge University Press!


The Languages of the Jews: A Sociolinguistic History

By Bernard Spolsky

A vivid commentary on Jewish survival and Jewish speech communities that will be enjoyed by the general reader, and is essential reading for students and researchers interested in the study of Middle Eastern languages, Jewish studies, and sociolinguistics.

New from Brill!


Indo-European Linguistics

New Open Access journal on Indo-European Linguistics is now available!

Query Details

Query Subject:   I'll shall, I'd should, you'd might etc.
Author:   Carsten Breul
Submitter Email:  click here to access email

Linguistic LingField(s):  Discourse Analysis
Text/Corpus Linguistics
Cognitive Science

Query:   Dear all

I have detected several utterances with contracted auxiliary ('ll, 'd)
+ full form auxiliary in the spoken part of the British National
Corpus (BNC). Some examples and a list of all the combinations found
and their frequencies are given below.

I have no idea what is going on here. Are these transcription errors?
(Unlikely, I would guess.) Are these slips of the tongue? Is this a
linguistically more interesting phenomenon -- such as a clitic
being/becoming an agreement suffix in the speaker's idiolect?

Although some of the combinations mentioned in the list (e.g. _I'll
can_, _I'd could_) may be instances of double modals, which are known
to be a feature of some dialects of English (e.g. Scottish), most of
them do not fall into this category.

I would be grateful for any kind of comment and, possibly,
bibliographic hints.


1. right I'll shall go and do some work in the kitchen (KB8 9563)

2. Because you're right as soon as they make noises like that I'll
shall say there is the door get on the other side of it I haven't got
time for it (KBH 6428)

3. well I'll shall have to take you out there won't I (KBL 8)

4. Hel hello Topsy hello Topsy I'll shall squeeze your feet if you do
it any more I'll shall squeeze your paws and you won't like it (KC9

5. Erm the next one we'll shall go erm go to market (F71 3)

6. I'll shan't think that you're there if you do go on (KBW 1401)

7. give me a bell I'll shan't I'll shan't be out for long (KC9 3903)

8. I'd should go too if I were you (KBW 14000)

9. Oh yes I'd should think she's only small (KCD 3579)

10. I see I'd just thought you'd might like to go (KDM 6661)

11. Okay erm I've got I just thought I'd might just let you know that
... (KLV 578 )

List of combinations and number of occurrences in the spoken part of
the BNC (only those cases are included in which the full form
auxiliary follows the contracted auxiliary uninterrupted, i.e. not
separated by comma, pause, unclear passage etc.)

I'll shall: 21
we'll shall: 2
we'll will: 2
I'll shan't: 2
I'll can: 2
he'll can't: 1
we'll would: 1
I'll won't: 1
I'll should: 1
I'll might: 1
I'll can't: 1
you'll must: 1
I'll could: 1
I'll will: 1

I'd should: 4
you'd might: 3
I'd would: 2
I'd can: 2
I'd could: 1
they'd might: 1
anybody'd would: 1
she'd might: 1
they'd may: 1
I'd must: 1
there'd ought: 1
he'd might: 1
I'd might: 1
we'd may: 1
I'd will: 1

Dr. Carsten Breul
Universitat Dortmund
Institut fer Anglistik und Amerikanistik
Emil-Figge-Str. 50
44227 Dortmund
LL Issue: 13.2425
Date posted: 24-Sep-2002


Sums main page