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"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more

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Query Details

Query Subject:   have (got) to
Author:   Kenji Kashino
Submitter Email:  click here to access email

Linguistic LingField(s):  Pragmatics
Subject Language(s):  English

Query:   Mon, 15 Dec 1997 11:25:00 +0900
Kenji Kashino
Q: have(got)to

I am now interested in the semi-modals ''have to'' and ''have got to'' in

I think sentence (2) is more emphatic and more emotional than (1). Am
I right ? If there are any other differences between them, tell them
to me.

(1) You have to be kidding.
(2) You've got to be kidding.
Could you e-mail me directly?
With thanks in advance and best wishes,
Kenji Kashino

Mon, 15 Dec 97 11:21:55 +0100
Melissa Barkat
Perceptual test

Does anyone of you have any idea about :

1. the segmental / suprasegmental cues used by arabic 'hearers' to
recognize the dialectal origine of an arabic speaker ?

2. the way I could set up a perceptual test in order to analyse the
role played by intonation for the recognition of arabic dialects. (I
intend to use low-filtered sentences produced by Arabic speakers from
different countries to see if any information is present on the F0).

Many thanks and best regards,

Melissa BARKAT
Maison Rhone-Alpes des Sciences de l'Homme
Laboratoire de Dynamique Du Langage
14, Avenue Berthelot
69363 Lyon Cedex 07
Tel : 04 72 72 64 63
Fax : 04 72 72 65 90
E-Mail : Melissa.Barkat@mrash.fr
LL Issue: 8.1789
Date posted: 16-Dec-1997


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