Featured Linguist!

Jost Gippert: Our Featured Linguist!

"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more

Donate Now | Visit the Fund Drive Homepage

Amount Raised:


Still Needed:


Can anyone overtake Syntax in the Subfield Challenge ?

Grad School Challenge Leader: University of Washington

Publishing Partner: Cambridge University Press CUP Extra Publisher Login
amazon logo
More Info

New from Oxford University Press!


What is English? And Why Should We Care?

By: Tim William Machan

To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.

New from Cambridge University Press!


Medical Writing in Early Modern English

Edited by Irma Taavitsainen and Paivi Pahta

This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.

Query Details

Query Subject:   Use of 'Substitute'
Author:   David Denison
Submitter Email:  click here to access email

Linguistic LingField(s):  Historical Linguistics

Query:   I'm just tidying up a paper (draft available on http://ling.man.ac.uk/Info/staff/dd/) on the reversal of _substitute_, which in British English is moving rapidly from the subcategorisation (1) substitute new for old towards (2) substitute old for new - a switch which raises some interesting questions. I've got one passive example from the American National Corpus whose interpretation isn't 100% clear to me. Could a native speaker of American football English give me the sports-language-for-dummies version, assuming complete ignorance of the setup and the jargon? (3) Non-specialists only can be substituted out of the lineup once per quarter, meaning two-way players can expect to be on the field upward of 45 to 50 minutes of a 60-minute game. (ANC, NYTimes) In particular, what does 'out of the lineup' mean? - that the coach can take non-specialist players off the bench and send them out onto the field, or that he can bring them off the field, or perhaps that he can bring them off the field and replace them by others waiting to come on? And whatever it means, does example (3) represent normal usage in context? Many thanks.
LL Issue: 15.3523
Date posted: 18-Dec-2004


Sums main page