'like'/'manner' as Purpose Clause Marker
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I am looking for languages in which a morpheme meaning 'like' or
'manner' is used to mark purpose clauses.
Here are some examples from Kambaata (Cushitic, Ethiopia) to clarify
what I am looking for. In Kambaata, the enclitic morpheme =ga 'like' is
used, among others, in the following constructions:
Noun=‘like’ means 'like / in the manner of Noun'
adanch-o=ga ga'l-a agg-oomm
cat.SG-fGEN=LIKE shard-mOBL drink-1sPFV
'I drank from a shard LIKE a cat.'
Relative clause=’like’ functions as a complement clause e.g. with verbs
of cognition ('know'), perception ('hear'), utterance ('say'), manipulation
('tell s.o. to do s.th., cause s.o. to s.o.)
'I know THAT (lit. ''like'') you will say to me ''Who is [this]?!''.
Relative clause=’like’ functions as a purpose clause ('in order to'/'so
mann-u [...] hoog-umb-o=ga
'They [= horses] carry people so that (lit. ''like'') they don't become
tired.' (A translation that better reflects the Kambaata word order: 'So
that (lit. ''like'') people do not become tired, they [= horses] carry
Cross-linguistically, it is widely attested that 'like' can grammaticalise
into a complement clause marker (usually via a quotative function) but I
haven't come across many examples of 'like'/’manner’ being used as a
marker of PURPOSE clauses outside of Ethiopian languages. (In Ethio-
Semitic, North Omotic and East Cushitic languages, however, it is quite
common to use ‘like’/’manner’ as a purpose clause marker.) The only
non-Ethiopian example I could find so far is quoted in Schmidtke-Bode
Supyire (Gur: Mali, Carlson 1994: 586)
Pi na wyige turu
they PROG hole.DEF dig.IMPF
ba pi gu m-pyi
like they POT FP-do
si lwOhO ta mE
SUBJ water get like
'They are digging the hole in order to get water.' (lit. ''They are digging
a hole as if they were to get some water.'')
(NB: In the example above, tone marking was left out; E = open 'e', O =
Do you know of other languages in which 'like' or 'manner' is used as a
marker of purpose clauses? I’d be interested to know about languages
that 1) use ‘like’/’manner’ in purpose but NOT in complement clauses,
2) languages that use ‘like’/’manner’ in purpose AND complement
clauses, 3) languages that use ‘like’/’manner’ as the primary means to
mark purpose clauses, 4) languages that use ‘like’/’manner’ as one out
of several means to mark purpose clauses, etc.
Any comments and references would be much appreciated! I will post a
summary if there are enough responses.
Carlson, Robert 1994. A grammar of Supyire. Berlin, New York: Mouton
Schmidtke-Bode, Karsten 2009. A typology of purpose clauses.
Amsterdam, Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Dr Yvonne Treis
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
LLACAN - UMR 8135 du CNRS
Centre Georges Haudricourt, Bat. C
7, rue Guy Môquet B.P. 8
94801 Villejuif Cedex
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