Featured Linguist!

Jost Gippert: Our Featured Linguist!

"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more



Donate Now | Visit the Fund Drive Homepage

Amount Raised:

$34328

Still Needed:

$40672

Can anyone overtake Syntax in the Subfield Challenge ?

Grad School Challenge Leader: University of Washington


Publishing Partner: Cambridge University Press CUP Extra Publisher Login
amazon logo
More Info


New from Oxford University Press!

ad

What is English? And Why Should We Care?

By: Tim William Machan

To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.


New from Cambridge University Press!

ad

Medical Writing in Early Modern English

Edited by Irma Taavitsainen and Paivi Pahta

This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.


Query Details


Query Subject:   'like'/'manner' as Purpose Clause Marker
Author:   Yvonne Treis
Submitter Email:  click here to access email

Linguistic LingField(s):  General Linguistics
Historical Linguistics
Typology

Query:   Dear colleagues,

I am looking for languages in which a morpheme meaning 'like' or
'manner' is used to mark purpose clauses.

Here are some examples from Kambaata (Cushitic, Ethiopia) to clarify
what I am looking for. In Kambaata, the enclitic morpheme =ga 'like' is
used, among others, in the following constructions:

Noun=‘like’ means 'like / in the manner of Noun'
(1)
adanch-o=ga ga'l-a agg-oomm
cat.SG-fGEN=LIKE shard-mOBL drink-1sPFV
'I drank from a shard LIKE a cat.'

Relative clause=’like’ functions as a complement clause e.g. with verbs
of cognition ('know'), perception ('hear'), utterance ('say'), manipulation
('tell s.o. to do s.th., cause s.o. to s.o.)
(3)
ayeeti-la y-itaanti-'e=ga
who.PRED-DISBELIEF say-2sIPFV-1sO.REL=LIKE
dag-aamm
know-1sIPFV
'I know THAT (lit. ''like'') you will say to me ''Who is [this]?!''.

Relative clause=’like’ functions as a purpose clause ('in order to'/'so
that')
(4)
mann-u [...] hoog-umb-o=ga
people-mNOM become_tired-3mNEG.REL-mOBL=LIKE
iyy-itaa-s
carry-3fIPFV-3mO
'They [= horses] carry people so that (lit. ''like'') they don't become
tired.' (A translation that better reflects the Kambaata word order: 'So
that (lit. ''like'') people do not become tired, they [= horses] carry
them.')

Cross-linguistically, it is widely attested that 'like' can grammaticalise
into a complement clause marker (usually via a quotative function) but I
haven't come across many examples of 'like'/’manner’ being used as a
marker of PURPOSE clauses outside of Ethiopian languages. (In Ethio-
Semitic, North Omotic and East Cushitic languages, however, it is quite
common to use ‘like’/’manner’ as a purpose clause marker.) The only
non-Ethiopian example I could find so far is quoted in Schmidtke-Bode
(2009: 76).

Supyire (Gur: Mali, Carlson 1994: 586)
Pi na wyige turu
they PROG hole.DEF dig.IMPF
ba pi gu m-pyi
like they POT FP-do
si lwOhO ta mE
SUBJ water get like
'They are digging the hole in order to get water.' (lit. ''They are digging
a hole as if they were to get some water.'')
(NB: In the example above, tone marking was left out; E = open 'e', O =
open 'o')

Do you know of other languages in which 'like' or 'manner' is used as a
marker of purpose clauses? I’d be interested to know about languages
that 1) use ‘like’/’manner’ in purpose but NOT in complement clauses,
2) languages that use ‘like’/’manner’ in purpose AND complement
clauses, 3) languages that use ‘like’/’manner’ as the primary means to
mark purpose clauses, 4) languages that use ‘like’/’manner’ as one out
of several means to mark purpose clauses, etc.

Any comments and references would be much appreciated! I will post a
summary if there are enough responses.

Regards,
Yvonne Treis


References:
Carlson, Robert 1994. A grammar of Supyire. Berlin, New York: Mouton
de Gruyter.
Schmidtke-Bode, Karsten 2009. A typology of purpose clauses.
Amsterdam, Philadelphia: Benjamins.

*****************************************************

Dr Yvonne Treis
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
LLACAN - UMR 8135 du CNRS
Centre Georges Haudricourt, Bat. C
7, rue Guy Môquet B.P. 8
94801 Villejuif Cedex
FRANCE

http://cnrs.academia.edu/YvonneTreis
LL Issue: 22.3269
Date posted: 16-Aug-2011



Back

Sums main page