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"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more

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What is English? And Why Should We Care?

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To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.

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Query Details

Query Subject:   Negation Systems
Author:   Claire Lampp
Submitter Email:  click here to access email

Linguistic LingField(s):  General Linguistics
Historical Linguistics
Language Documentation
Genetic Classification
Subject Language(s):  Hindi

Query:   Dear Linguists,

I am a graduate student working on a master’s thesis dealing with the
development of systems of negation. More specifically, I am looking at the
three negators in Hindi. Bhatia (1995) has classified these as ''mat''
(non-honorific imperative), ''na'' (subjunctive, honorific, imperative,
conditional, participial and gerundive phrases), and ''nahĩ:'' (elsewhere).
Thus far most of the research I am aware of has focused on the formal
split in their development. I am looking for information on other
languages with multiple negators whose use is divided along similar
functional lines. Information on the historical development of such systems
would be especially welcome. Thank you for your help.
LL Issue: 16.1627
Date posted: 21-May-2005


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