sum: verbal inflection
|Author:||J M Koppen|
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Last week I posted the following question on Linguist List
I am looking for languages which have the same - or a similar -
construction. The orders I am particularly interested in are:
verbal root - subject (pronoun/agreement) - tense (affix)
verbal root - subject (pronoun) - agreement (affix)
I received information about a lot of different languages. I would like to
take this opportunity to thank everyone who sent me an e-mail with
Yves Roberge and David Heap told me that this phenomenon is found in
Old Spanish and Modern Spanish dialects with object clitics. In Portugese
it is possible (presumably in the future and conditional). In Spanish it is
only possible with imperatives and infinitives. He gave
the following examples:
1a Si?nteNseN Portugese
2 Spanish (David Heap)
Las personas tienen el derecho de dormir y divertirseN
Iban a los lavaderos en vez de ducharseN
They gave me the following references:
Minkoff (MIT Working Papers in linguistics #20,1993)
Roberge & Cummins MIT Working Papers in Linguistics #22 (1994)
Taylor Roberts provided me with information about Kurdish
This language permits its second-position ergative clitic to intervene
between the verb stem and the object-agreement suffix.
The following references were supplied:
Jennifer VanLoon (1997), ''Pronominal morphology in Sulimani Kurdish,'' pp.
162 & 166
Lizanne Kaiser (ed) ''Yale a-morphous linguistics essays: studies in the
morphosyntax of clitics'' pp 151-174
Pius ten Hacken also wrote about Portugese (as did Michael Cysouw & F.
Dubert Garc?a). The following example was
levarei ('I will lift')
leva-lo-ei ('I will lift it').
In this example the object pronoun lo intervenes between the verbal stem and
the future affix.
The following reference was provided:
Ten Hacken, Pius (1994), Defining Morphology: A Principled Approach to
Determining the Boundaries of Compounding, Derivation, and Inflection,
John Lawler wrote that in the Austronesian language Acehnese, the following
construction is found:
is replaced by
I.e, the full NP subject replaces the agreement prefix, for emphatic effect.
He gave the following references:
Asyik, Abdul Gani, 1988, A Sentence Grammar of Achenese, PhD Dissertation,
University of Michigan.
Durie, A., 1985, A Grammar of Acehnese on the Basis of a Dialect of North
Aceh (Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en
Volkenkunde Nr. 112, Foris).
Lawler, J., 1977, ''A Agrees with B in Achenese: A Problem for Relational
Grammar,'' in Syntax and Semantics 8: Grammatical Relations,eds. P. Cole and
J. Sadock, Academic Press.
Lawler, J., 1975, ''On Coming to Terms in Achenese: The Function of Verbal
Dis-Agreement,'' Proceedings of the Parasession on Functionalism, Chicago
Lawler, J., 1988, ''On the Questions of Acehnese 'Passive','' Language 64:1.
Lawler, J., 1990, Review of Durie (1985), Lingua 82:4.
Joan Smith wrote me about Turkish.
it is possible with the 3rd pers. plural suffix (which is the same for
verbs,nouns and adjectives
'They are (apparently) rich'
2a Zengin degil-ler-mis
2b zengin degil-mis-ler
'They are (apparently) going'
'If they are coming'
5 Gel-iyor-sa-niz [the last i doesn't have a dot]
'If you(pl) are coming'
An almost complete range of conjugations can be found at:
Gregory Stump wrote that Romany has verb forms having the structure Root -
SubjAgr - Tense.
G. Stump 'On Rules of Referral', In:Language, 1993;
J.Sampson's 'The Dialect of the Gypsies of Wales'. OUP, 1926
Marjo van Koppen
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