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I have recently posted a query about loans and metaphors (LINGUIST
11.1253) and received the following examples:
'spaghettification' which is used in cosmology to describe what happens to
matter as it approaches the event horizon of a black hole
'spaghetti code' to refer to programming code that has convoluted do loops,
while loops, etc., instead of neatly modularized blocks, much like a wad of
sticky cooked linguini.
'spaghetti' is often used especially in Eastern Germany to denote an
Italian or (at the worst) any kind of foreigner coming from the South [e.g.
'Spaghettis klatschen' means to 'hunt a foreigner on the streets (and to
knock him/her around'].
Like "spaghetti westerns" in Hebrew "sirtei burekas" ("burekas-movies") or
low budget, local-culture Israeli movies from a certain period.
In the SW US "the whole enchilada" or (less commonly) "the whole burrito":
the entirety of something
>From ChInuk Wawa of the Grand Ronde Community in Oregon: - lEbEtay "bottle"
< French for idem also = "a beer" - pi "and; but" < French <puis> - tayi
"chief; leader" < Nuu-chah-nulth word for "eldest son of chief" - aw
"younger brother" < Chinookan for idem also = "brother [generic]" - q'wElan
"ear" < Salishan for idem also = "listen; hear" - tala "dollar" < English
for idem also = "money [generic]"
"blitz" in French for speed chess; >having a "blitz" on something or other
in English; to get flak ie punitive >feedback; krieg spiel - a game of
blind chess played on three boards; and >to go back much further there are
countless examples such as "cavalier" as >an adjective and "skirt" as a
verb. "toffer" derived from the borrowed adjective "tough" and meaning to
"last >the pace" in a sporting encounter. "next" for >substitute=rempla?ant
in sport; "feeling" for the French "sentiment"
This classroom is a *circus*. computer *virus* (both Latin words) *alto*
saxophone *picolo* bass violin (Italian) The child is a *cherub*. (Hebrew)
New York is a *sauna* in summer. (Finnish) as slow as *molasses*
(Portuguese) Harper's *Bazaar* (Arabic) *Borch* belt comedian a *sputnik*
[threat] (Russian) *Anatomy* of Criticism *jewel* of the orient *entrance*
exam (French) a *pariah* state (Tamil) a *jungle* of wires (Hindi) Your
plan *boomeranged*. (Australian) *kamikaze* journalism (Japanese)
And the following references:
- Fujimoto, J. 2000 "Assimilated and Expanded Loanwords in Japanese"
For the SYNTAX of piacere (and other psych verbs in Italian)
- Belletti,A./Rizzi, L (1988) "Psych Verbs and Theta Theory" In: Natural
Language and Linguistic Theory 6, 291-352.
I would like to thank:
Christopher Cleirigh firstname.lastname@example.org,
Herbert L. Colston" email@example.com,
Eitan Grossman firstname.lastname@example.org,
Chad Nilep email@example.com
David Robertson firstname.lastname@example.org,
Wolfgang Schulze W.Schulze@lrz.uni-muenchen.de,
Ron Sheen Ronald_Sheen@UQTR.UQuebec.CA,
R?my Viredaz email@example.com,
Anja Wanner firstname.lastname@example.org,
and an anonymous subscriber as well as the following subscribers from the
'code-switching' e-list http://www.egroups.com/group/code-switching where
I had originally posted my message:
France Mugler email@example.com
Malini Ramsay firstname.lastname@example.org
I would like to, however, clarify that my query was related to the
'integration' debate mainly in Language Contact circles and lexicography
where the criteria for loan inclusion in code-switching analyses and
dictionaries have never been clear. I am exploring 'metaphor' as a
possible criterion and a sound one, compared to some other imposed criteria
in these areas of study.
Thanks again for the interest
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