Summary: Uvulars and glottal stop (addendum)
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My apologies to Jakob Dempsey and Michael Johnstone for neglecting to include their responses to my query in the original summary posting. Here are their responses:
Jakob Dempsey reports that in contemporary Iranian Persian (with Tehrani the standard), the uvular stop (qaaf) and the voiced uvular fricative (ghain) tend to be neutralized to the voiceless uvular stop. He also mentioned the development of the pharyngeal in Arabic.
Michael Johnstone cites Li?s (1999) discussion of a variation in Beijing Mandarin between [?], [eng] and [gamma] in syllable onset position when the onset is empty, i.e. when no other consonant is there. Li attributes the variants to dialect mixture, while Duanmu (1990) and Wang (1993) construct feature geometries to derive the variants.
Duanmu, San (1990) ''A Formal Study of Syllable, Tone, Stress, and Domain in Chinese Languages''. PhD dissertation, MIT.
Li, Wen-Chao (1999) A diachronically-motivated segmental phonology of Mandarin Chinese. New York: Peter Lang.
Wang, Jenny Zhijie (1993) ''The Geometry of Segmental Features in Beijing Mandarin''. PhD dissertation, University of Delaware.
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