Third Summary, Lexical Borrowing
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I'd like to thank all persons who sent me in response to my query
(9,1777 Qs:lexical borrowing) through the linguist. This is the third
summary of some contributions that I received.
I owe many thanks to the following persons:
Dr. BERT PEETERS
Dr. HERNIK JOERGENSEN
Dr. MAHER BAHLOUL
- Marcel Dansi " Loan words and phonological methodology" (a book)
- Myres,Dan 1997, Teaching culture with language:Words of foreign origin and linguistic purism
Journal oh the Chinese Languages
Association 32:2. 41-55
- Opening Chapter of Michael Picones entitled" Anglicisms,neologisms & dynamic French"
Amesterdam, John Benjamins
- Ph.D dissertation on Word Formation in Bantu Languages
The dissertation is written in French and is still to be published.
Here is its whole title: Aspects theoriques de la creation lexicale: le cas du bamileke,
Ph.D. Dissertation, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 1995, Montreal (Quebec), Canada. The English abstract of this dissertation on Linguist
dissertation Abstracts (Internet).
By: Moses Nyongwa
- Hans Henrich Hock 1988 "Principles of historical linguistics"
(a section pp.380-426)
1- Pan Ning:
You can use the theories of such as the X-tier theory, the moraic theory to analyse the phonological adaptation.I'm a Chinese, you see,onset consonants
clusters are prohibited in my language. So to translate English names which has onset C.clusters.such as "strong", we simply
insert vowels to turn the monosyllabic words into a three-syllable word-[sit6lang](i is a dental front high vowel, 6 is
schwa). My language doesn't allow obstruent coda, then to tranlate the name [luk], we insert a schwa at the end-[luk6],
hence break one syllable into two syllables. Hope this information might be useful to you.
I'll put before you a rather exotic case, of Sign being borrowed into the
lexicons of languages in North America as different as English and Chinese
who found themselves bumping into each other on the Great Plains.
This should be filed under "work in progress" rather than "definitively
In an anthropological linguistic "core vocabulary" view, the word for
"God" in any language has to be considered a highly cultural/linguistic
problematic -- mostly usually conservative in our experience, but then
what beyond that?
What would it take for a whole language of Western European descent to
change its word for what in English we say as "God" (with a capital G,
which automatically confers a certain "sanctity" to that which it
graces!), Deo, Deus, Gott, Dieu, or whatever? And yet that's what I
conclude must have happened with either the Cheyenne or the Sioux and many
other tribes who used Plains Indian Sign Language.
How else is one to explain that Ch. "ma?he-o?o" [great/big-animate/spirit]
and totally unrelated Lakota "wakan tanka" [spirit large] correspond
significantly with a Sign language which I conclude was prior to either
one of those tribes historically entering the Plains, where our Noun-God
equivalent is motioned as the three Signs for "big", "medicine" and
"above"? The question we're left with is: is that synchronicity something
that came with successive contact with Plains Sign, in which case they
changed the morphemes within their respective languages to correspond with
the locally "common" way of morphemically referring to a process-God, or
did they both independently bring this morphemically similar phrase from
languages in Native America as different as English and Chinese?
I don't know the "absolute" answer, but either would be interesting. If
they did change on contact with the Plains (as did some of the Creation
stories, which moved in locus to the Black Hills of SD), what were the
Pre-Plains-Sign morphemes for "God" in those languages?
We know now that all Native American (and maybe pan-indigenous) notions
of "God", no matter what they look like in order to make sense to English
speakers, are really verbs rather than nouns -- processes, relationships
and transformations as primary instead of "things" in a Newtonian way.
Actually, some are more like 'roots' than either verbs or nouns, but
that's a nuance for further thought. And we know now that this is totally
in line with the insights of 20th Century physicists such as Heisenberg,
who bemoaned "We have reached the limits of our language" while
exemplifying by saying, "We know an atom only by its radiating -- but
there is no THING there radiating [caps added]."
Quantum/relativity scientists must abandon their daily language (usu.
English or another Western European language), languages which emphasize
fragmentation, and must temporarily adopt a mathematical language of
wholeness (non-euclidean geometry) in order to see wholeness. Native
Americans never "grew" languages of fragmentation, but (as in the movie
"Dances with Wolves") live daily various languages of wholeness -- bare
predicates with no specific subjects or objects, exactly equivalent to the
structure of "quantum eventing". What might it be like to have such a
human language as a DAILY language, rather than speaking a daily language
one must flee from in order to apprehend wholeness?
3- James Kirchner:
- Phonological adaptation of loan words in recepient language
Czech adapts loanwords to its own phonological system, naturally substituting
the closest sound in its own language for that in the donor language. The
unusual thing in Czech, as opposed to Russian, for example, is that the
front/back feature of a vowel is regarded as more important than the rounding
feature. When borrowing from French, therefore, you get things like this:
deja vu [deZa vi:]
The list goes on. There are also some spelling pronunciations, which have
become reflected in Czech spelling:
>- Morphological adaptation of loan words in recepient (or different)
All foreign words ending in "-ation" in Czech take the suffix "-ace" [atse].
As far as I know, this suffix is only found on loanwords from Romance
Czech often ads a feminine or neuter diminutive ending when adapting
a foreign term, evidently in order to make it declinable.
Keds (gym shoes) kecky (many Czechs don't know this is a loanword)
They also add feminine endings for making a feminine equivalent of the word:
kovboj kovbojka (cowgirl)
byznysman byznysmanka (businesswoman)
And they add augmentative suffixes for various purposes:
pubertak (a male, of any age, who acts like his hormones are
making him act crazy)
bufetak (a man who stands around a cafeteria and eats the remains
of customers' meals; a man who eats from
Just for an example, I am listing below few borrowings of different periods
into Albanian. You can contact me for more examples.
Alb. "tapet/-i" from Lat. "tapetum"
Alb. "diatez/-a" from Gr. ""
Alb. "gjeografi/-a" from Gr. ""
Alb. "aranxhat/-a" from It. ""
Alb. "peshkatar/i/[-ja]" from It. "pescatore"
Alb. "bulevard/-i" from Fr. "boulevard"
Alb. "inauguroj" from Fr. "inaugurer"
Alb. "shampanj/-a" from Fr. "champagne"
Alb. "kros/-i" from Engl. "cross"
Alb. "blu xhins/-e" from Engl. "blue jeans"
Alb. "xhus" from Engl. "juice"
Alb. "Hivzi" "Ivzi" from Turkish ""
Alb. "dyfek" from Turkish "tfeng"
Alb. "qilim" from Turkish "kilim"
Alb. "konak" from Turkish "konak"
Alb. "qitap" from Arabic "kitab"
Thank you again,
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