Publishing Partner: Cambridge University Press CUP Extra Publisher Login
amazon logo
More Info

New from Oxford University Press!


Oxford Handbook of Corpus Phonology

Edited by Jacques Durand, Ulrike Gut, and Gjert Kristoffersen

Offers the first detailed examination of corpus phonology and serves as a practical guide for researchers interested in compiling or using phonological corpora

New from Cambridge University Press!


The Languages of the Jews: A Sociolinguistic History

By Bernard Spolsky

A vivid commentary on Jewish survival and Jewish speech communities that will be enjoyed by the general reader, and is essential reading for students and researchers interested in the study of Middle Eastern languages, Jewish studies, and sociolinguistics.

New from Brill!


Indo-European Linguistics

New Open Access journal on Indo-European Linguistics is now available!

Summary Details

Query:   Have to/Have got to
Author:  Kenji Kashino
Submitter Email:  click here to access email
Linguistic LingField(s):   Pragmatics

Summary:   At the end of December I raised a question about "have to" and "have
got to". My question is as follows: I think sentence (2) is more
emphatic and more emotional than (1). Am I right ? (1) You have to
be kidding. (2) You've got to be kidding. Soon after that I got 9
e-mails. Thank you for answering my question.

I would express my sincere thanks to the following people who
supplied useful data: Price Caldwell, Stephen van Bibber, Ronald
Cosper, Frank Gladney, Steve Nicoll e, Mark Balhorn, Beard Michael,
Richard C. DeArmond, and Vincent Jenkins.

Two respondents told me that I am exactly right. Two respondents said
that sentence (1) sounds odd or less natural than (2). One respondent
pointed out that factors other than emphasis and emotion can also come
into play when a speaker chooses between the two forms.

Thank you.
Kenji Kashino
Professor of English Linguistics,
Osaka Shoin Women's College

LL Issue: 9.398
Date Posted: 18-Mar-1998
Original Query: Read original query


Sums main page