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"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more



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Summary Details


Query:   Have to/Have got to
Author:  Kenji Kashino
Submitter Email:  click here to access email
Linguistic LingField(s):   Pragmatics
Semantics
Syntax

Summary:   At the end of December I raised a question about "have to" and "have
got to". My question is as follows: I think sentence (2) is more
emphatic and more emotional than (1). Am I right ? (1) You have to
be kidding. (2) You've got to be kidding. Soon after that I got 9
e-mails. Thank you for answering my question.

I would express my sincere thanks to the following people who
supplied useful data: Price Caldwell, Stephen van Bibber, Ronald
Cosper, Frank Gladney, Steve Nicoll e, Mark Balhorn, Beard Michael,
Richard C. DeArmond, and Vincent Jenkins.

Two respondents told me that I am exactly right. Two respondents said
that sentence (1) sounds odd or less natural than (2). One respondent
pointed out that factors other than emphasis and emotion can also come
into play when a speaker chooses between the two forms.

Thank you.
Kenji Kashino
Professor of English Linguistics,
Osaka Shoin Women's College

LL Issue: 9.398
Date Posted: 18-Mar-1998
Original Query: Read original query


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