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Summary Details

Query:   Names of immigrant speech
Author:  Lars Anders Kulbrandstad
Submitter Email:  click here to access email
Linguistic LingField(s):   Not Applicable

Summary:   In a posting in June I asked for help with a survey of what varieties spoken immigrants and foreigners are called in various languages. I have received a number of responses both to that query and to a parallel enquiry to members of the British Association of Applied Linguistics. All contributors should by now have received individual thanks for their kind assistance (my apologies if anyone has been left out). Here is an overview of the material that I have obtained so far, including previously registered terms from the Scandinavian languages:

DANISH: gebrokken dansk (broken Danish), innvandrerdansk (mmigrant Danish), udl?ndingedansk (foreigner Danish), nydansk (new Danish), perkerdansk (Persh-Turk Danish), wallahdansk (wallah Danish), jallasprog (jalla language), danimix (Danish mixture)

NORWEGIAN: gebrokken norsk (broken Norwegian), innvandrernorsk (immigrant Norwegian), utlendingnorsk (foreigner Norwegian), kebabnorsk (kebab Norwegian), vollanorsk/wallanorsk (wallah Norwegian) jallaspr?k (jalla language), pakkisnorsk (Paki(stani) Norwegian), salsanorsk (Salsa Norwegian)

SWEDISH: bruten svensk (broken Swedish), invandrarsvenska (immigrant Swedish), Rinkebysvenska (Rinkeby Swedish), Albysvenska (Alby Swedish), Fittjasvenska (Fittja Swedish), Tenstasvenska (Tensta Swedish), f?rortsvenska (Suburb Swedish) G?rdstenska (G?rdsten language), vestsvenska (West Swedish), Roseng?rdsvenska (Roseng?rd Swedish)
m?ngsvenska (multi Swedish)

GERMAN: Ausl?nderdeutsch (foreigner German), Balkan-Slang (Balkan slang), gebrochen (broken), D?ner-Deutch (Kebab German), Kanak Sprak (Kanak language), Kanakisch (Kanakish), Kebab-Deutch (kebab German), Kiez reden (hood speaking), krass redden (cool speaking), Stra?endeutsch (street German), T?rken-Deutsch (Turk-German), T?tsch (Tur(kish-Germ)an), Voll krass-Slang (real cool slang)

DUTCH: Damsko-taal (Amsterdam language), gebroken Nederlands (broken Dutch), krom-praten (crooked speaking), Murks (m + (T)urkish (?)), straattaal (street language), smurfentaal (smurf language), Turks-Nederlands (Turkish-Dutch)

FRENCH: franglais (French English), langage/parler de banliue (language of suburb), langage/parler beur (language of Arabs), langage/parler de (la) cit?/des cites (language of (the) towers blocks), langage/parler de la zone (language of the former slum belt), tchatche (chat), n?ofrancais (neofrench), petit n?gre (little negro)

ENGLISH (not complete): Broken English, Chinglish, Danlish, Dunglish, Engrish, Finglish/Finnlish, Germish, Immigrant English, Italish, Japlish, Manglish, Norwenglish, Porto-Crucian, Singlish, Spanglish, Swenglish,Yeshivish, Yinglish

OTHER LANGUAGES: GREEK: Anglo-pontiaka (Pontios-English), SPANISH: castellano/espa?ol motoso (Spanish with ?mote? = a kind of white corn), portu?ol (portu(gu?s)+(espa)?ol), SWAHILI: Ki-Setla (settler language)

Data like these can be analysed from several perspectives: What kind of variety is referred to by the terms (e.g. the majority language spoken with a general ?immigrant? character, language in multiethnic urban youth groups ?)? Who use the terms (are they exonymic or endonymic)? What is the origin of the terms? How do the terms present the varieties (by localisation, ethnic affiliation ...)? What is the emotive load of the terms? What concepts and attitudes might lie behind the terms? In an ongoing project I try to answer such questions. Any further contributions from readers of LINGUIST will be highly appreciated.

Lars Anders Kulbrandstad
Hedmark University College

LL Issue: 8.675
Date Posted: 07-May-1997
Original Query: Read original query


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