Featured Linguist!

Jost Gippert: Our Featured Linguist!

"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more

Donate Now | Visit the Fund Drive Homepage

Amount Raised:


Still Needed:


Can anyone overtake Syntax in the Subfield Challenge ?

Grad School Challenge Leader: University of Washington

Publishing Partner: Cambridge University Press CUP Extra Publisher Login
amazon logo
More Info

New from Oxford University Press!


What is English? And Why Should We Care?

By: Tim William Machan

To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.

New from Cambridge University Press!


Medical Writing in Early Modern English

Edited by Irma Taavitsainen and Paivi Pahta

This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.

Summary Details

Query:   Names of immigrant speech
Author:  Lars Anders Kulbrandstad
Submitter Email:  click here to access email
Linguistic LingField(s):   Not Applicable

Summary:   In a posting in June I asked for help with a survey of what varieties spoken immigrants and foreigners are called in various languages. I have received a number of responses both to that query and to a parallel enquiry to members of the British Association of Applied Linguistics. All contributors should by now have received individual thanks for their kind assistance (my apologies if anyone has been left out). Here is an overview of the material that I have obtained so far, including previously registered terms from the Scandinavian languages:

DANISH: gebrokken dansk (broken Danish), innvandrerdansk (mmigrant Danish), udl?ndingedansk (foreigner Danish), nydansk (new Danish), perkerdansk (Persh-Turk Danish), wallahdansk (wallah Danish), jallasprog (jalla language), danimix (Danish mixture)

NORWEGIAN: gebrokken norsk (broken Norwegian), innvandrernorsk (immigrant Norwegian), utlendingnorsk (foreigner Norwegian), kebabnorsk (kebab Norwegian), vollanorsk/wallanorsk (wallah Norwegian) jallaspr?k (jalla language), pakkisnorsk (Paki(stani) Norwegian), salsanorsk (Salsa Norwegian)

SWEDISH: bruten svensk (broken Swedish), invandrarsvenska (immigrant Swedish), Rinkebysvenska (Rinkeby Swedish), Albysvenska (Alby Swedish), Fittjasvenska (Fittja Swedish), Tenstasvenska (Tensta Swedish), f?rortsvenska (Suburb Swedish) G?rdstenska (G?rdsten language), vestsvenska (West Swedish), Roseng?rdsvenska (Roseng?rd Swedish)
m?ngsvenska (multi Swedish)

GERMAN: Ausl?nderdeutsch (foreigner German), Balkan-Slang (Balkan slang), gebrochen (broken), D?ner-Deutch (Kebab German), Kanak Sprak (Kanak language), Kanakisch (Kanakish), Kebab-Deutch (kebab German), Kiez reden (hood speaking), krass redden (cool speaking), Stra?endeutsch (street German), T?rken-Deutsch (Turk-German), T?tsch (Tur(kish-Germ)an), Voll krass-Slang (real cool slang)

DUTCH: Damsko-taal (Amsterdam language), gebroken Nederlands (broken Dutch), krom-praten (crooked speaking), Murks (m + (T)urkish (?)), straattaal (street language), smurfentaal (smurf language), Turks-Nederlands (Turkish-Dutch)

FRENCH: franglais (French English), langage/parler de banliue (language of suburb), langage/parler beur (language of Arabs), langage/parler de (la) cit?/des cites (language of (the) towers blocks), langage/parler de la zone (language of the former slum belt), tchatche (chat), n?ofrancais (neofrench), petit n?gre (little negro)

ENGLISH (not complete): Broken English, Chinglish, Danlish, Dunglish, Engrish, Finglish/Finnlish, Germish, Immigrant English, Italish, Japlish, Manglish, Norwenglish, Porto-Crucian, Singlish, Spanglish, Swenglish,Yeshivish, Yinglish

OTHER LANGUAGES: GREEK: Anglo-pontiaka (Pontios-English), SPANISH: castellano/espa?ol motoso (Spanish with ?mote? = a kind of white corn), portu?ol (portu(gu?s)+(espa)?ol), SWAHILI: Ki-Setla (settler language)

Data like these can be analysed from several perspectives: What kind of variety is referred to by the terms (e.g. the majority language spoken with a general ?immigrant? character, language in multiethnic urban youth groups ?)? Who use the terms (are they exonymic or endonymic)? What is the origin of the terms? How do the terms present the varieties (by localisation, ethnic affiliation ...)? What is the emotive load of the terms? What concepts and attitudes might lie behind the terms? In an ongoing project I try to answer such questions. Any further contributions from readers of LINGUIST will be highly appreciated.

Lars Anders Kulbrandstad
Hedmark University College

LL Issue: 8.675
Date Posted: 07-May-1997
Original Query: Read original query


Sums main page