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Summary Details

Query:   Anaphoras to 'every'
Author:  Norihiro Ogata
Submitter Email:  click here to access email
Linguistic LingField(s):   General Linguistics

Summary:   Dear all,

The last week, I send my query about anaphoras
to ''every''-phrases to LINGUIST. (Linguist 14.1743)
As a result, 13 people gave me the reply.

To sum up,
I mainly showed the following 4 sentences ((5) is changed):

(1) Every rice-grower_i in Korea owns a wooden cart. Usually he_i gets
it from his father.

(2) Every Swiss male_i must do military service. He_i is required to
do so by law.

(5) Every friend_i of John smokes. (Usually) she/he also takes drugs.

(6) A master craftsman builds every house_i in this area. (Usually)
it_i is very small.

Especially, (5) and (6) intended the relation with a kind of generic,
i.e., G. Carlson's ''unbound'' every.

The responses is represented as the following table:
OK NG They (instead of singular pronouns)
(1) 8 1 5
(2) 8 1 5
(5) 4 9 6
(6) 3 10 6

Almost people answered only for (5) and (6).
So (1) and (2) look like wrong.
I think they all accepted (1) and (2).
If this assumption is right, the table is:

(1) 12 1
(2) 12 1

Furthermore, Dr. Paula Gherasim reported the test in her class:
(1) 10 8
(2) 10 8
(5) 0 18
(6) 0 18

Dr. Peter Crompton gave me some examples:

(7) Every book John owns is a paperback. Usually, it's a
(8) Fred Smith builds every new house in this area.
Usuallu, it's very small.

I asked again the following sentences which are the ''unbound''
version of (7) and (8), and he replied them as acceptable.

(9) Every book John buys is a paperback.
Usually, it is a thriller.
(10) Traditionally, Fred Smith builds every house
in this area. Usually, it is very small.

Dr. Gherasim also taught an example in a paper:

(11) Every boy_i tells some girl_j that he_i will love
her_j always.
(T. Kapitan (1998), ''On Depicting Indexical Reference'',
in Thought, Language and Ontology, Kluwer)

I am very grateful to the following people who collaborate
this query:
Dylan, Julian Bradfield, Paula Gherasim, Lynell R. Williams,
A. F. Gupta, Peter Crompton, Pete Unseth, Leslie Blair,
Heather Marsden, Beverly Michaels, Fay Wouk, and Eric McCready,
in particular, Paula's class test and
Peter's re-reply and Eric's personal communication.

Sincerely yours,

Norihiro Ogata
Osaka University

Subject-Language: English; Code: ENG

LL Issue: 14.1817
Date Posted: 30-Jun-2003
Original Query: Read original query


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