Publishing Partner: Cambridge University Press CUP Extra Wiley-Blackwell Publisher Login
amazon logo
More Info

New from Oxford University Press!


Language Planning as a Sociolinguistic Experiment

By: Ernst Jahr

Provides richly detailed insight into the uniqueness of the Norwegian language development. Marks the 200th anniversary of the birth of the Norwegian nation following centuries of Danish rule

New from Cambridge University Press!


Acquiring Phonology: A Cross-Generational Case-Study

By Neil Smith

The study also highlights the constructs of current linguistic theory, arguing for distinctive features and the notion 'onset' and against some of the claims of Optimality Theory and Usage-based accounts.

New from Brill!


Language Production and Interpretation: Linguistics meets Cognition

By Henk Zeevat

The importance of Henk Zeevat's new monograph cannot be overstated. [...] I recommend it to anyone who combines interests in language, logic, and computation [...]. David Beaver, University of Texas at Austin

Summary Details

Query:   Expressions Similar to Hebrew 'bixlal'
Author:  Hagit Migron
Submitter Email:  click here to access email
Linguistic LingField(s):   General Linguistics

Summary:   Regarding query:

Deal linguists,

Several weeks ago I requested data on lexical items that are similar to
Hebrew 'bixlal'in their range of meanings. I got very many helpful
responses, which are summarized below.

'Bixlal' has the following five meanings (See original posting for a more
detailed presentation):
A) 'At all': hu lo nexmad bixlal (He is not nice at all)
B) 'in general': hu bixlal nexmad (He is nice in general)
C) 'even': hu bixlal xaver shelxa? (Is he even your friend?)
D) 'anyway': ma ata roce bixlal? (What do you want, anyway?)
E) 'actually': ze lo shulxan, ze bixlal kise (It's not a table, it's
actually a chair)

According to the responses I recieved, the following languages have lexical
items similar to 'bixlal':

Russian: 'voobshche' Meanings A, B, C, D, E
Polish: 'w ogole' Meanings A, B, C, D, E
Slovene: 'sploh' Meanings A, B, C, D, E
Serbian: 'oupste' Meanings A, B, C, D
Czech: 'vubec' Meanings A, B, C, D
German: 'überhaupt' Meanings A, B, C, D, E
Hungarian: 'egyaltalan' Meanings A, B, C, D

Japanese: mattaku Meanings A, B
Dutch: helemaal Meanings A, B
Irish English: at all Meanings A, B
(This combination of readings (A+B) is commonly produced by items meaning
'totally/completely' which can take either wide or narrow scope with
respect to negation, to produce readings like 'completely true' vs.
'completely untrue'='not true at all')

Additional items mentioned were Yiddish 'bixlal', Itlian 'mica', Swedish
'överhuvudtaget', Danish 'overhovedet' and Norwegian 'overhodet'.

I wish to thank all the people who responded:
Hana Skoumalova, Stefan Dyla, Fay Wouk, Yuri Koryakov, Ora Matushansky,
Asya Pereltsvaig, Thorsten Schröter, Konrad Szczesniak, Tamas Biro, Sarah
Bunin Benor, Donka Torov,Annabel Harrison,Agnes Sandor, Ghil'ad Zuckermann,
Caren Brinckmann, Wayne Leman, Laurence Horn, Remy Viredaz, Kim Schulte,
Hana Skoumalova, Ella Earp-Lynch, Galina Gordishevsky, Timur Maisak, Pius
ten Hacken, Hyoungbae Lee, Susanne Riehemann, Olga Kagan.

I will be happy to recieve any additions / corrections, and any other
information on words that combine a ''universal-like'' and
''existntial-like'' meaning (except 'any' and its correlates). My e-mail:

LL Issue: 16.999
Date Posted: 02-Apr-2005
Original Query: Read original query


Sums main page