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Constructed Languages

·A Philosophical Grammar of Ithkuil: A Constructed Language: Ithkuil is a cross between an a priori philosophical language and a logical language designed to demonstrate how human languages could function, not as they do function. Ithkuil aims for the highest possible degree of logic, efficiency, detail, and accuracy in spoken/written expression, while minimizing the ambiguity, vagueness, illogic, redundancy, polysemy and arbitrariness of natural languages. Word-formation utilizes concepts from cognitive linguistics such as prototype theory, fuzzy logic, radial categorization and semantic complementarity.
·Ardano project: Ardano is a new project that could help in both international communications and language documentation. It is an artificial language that is very unique and the first of it's kind. It's goal is to take words from all languages in the world to create a real international vocabulary. The project needs you help and support; there is a group for general discussion about the project on Yahoo (Ardano) group.
·Arkian: A natural language spoken in the Ark Maramia microstate.
·Atlango: Richard A. Antonius ATLANGO - The new neutral international language. A new proposal for the common language for The European Union. Easy to learn, pronounce and highly euphonious.
·Atlantian: Atlantian is a science fiction language created by Francis Tokarski. It has an exceedingly rich phonology, and clever and complicated morphology. It is designed primarily for its aesthetic appeal. The grammar is modeled mostly on an eclectic, blend of Germanic-leaning Indo-European grammar with playful theoretical considerations experimented with, including much sound-symbolism.
·Brandonian: The latest romance language from Jordan Kay, based off Portuguese.
·Colloquial Black Speech for Orcs, Trolls, and Men: Lexicon of Tolkein's Conlang
·Dastmen, new artificial language: Dastmen is a new artificial language, spoken by a little community that counts on 200 members. Dastmen was created by the Spanish Juan M. Jiménez in 1984. It has a great lexicon, with more than 350000 words, without an existent or artificial lexical root, and a simple grammar.
·Dscript - dimensional writting system: Dscript is a way of writting both horizontally or vertically with the same system, it alows
·El Glhetg Talossán: Site describing Talossan, a Romance conlang begun in the early 1980s by Robert Ben Madison. One of the largest and most developed naturalistic conlangs, Talossan is inspired mainly by North African Latin, Occitan, Sardinian, Rhaeto-Romance languages, and Berber languages, with additional influences from Gaelic, Germanic languages, and Native American languages. The site includes a searchable English toTalossan dictionary/word translator, pronunciation guide, and samples of Talossan literature.
·Esata Language Description: Esata is a newly designed 'constructed language'. It is a 'bare bones' version of English which has been internationalized to a high degree. Esata is proposed as a personal language for English speakers, and also as a simplified form of English for use as a standard creole.
·Esperanto Studies and Interlinguistics: A central resource page for research on international linguistic communication and planned languages, especially Esperanto. It includes research organizations, publications, and Internet sites.
· This is a multi-lingual website introduction to Esperanto and to Esperanto groups and organizations around the world. Tio ĉi estas plur-lingva retloka enkonduko al Esperanto kaj al Esperantaj grupoj kaj organizaĵoj tra la mondo.
·I Lam Arth - The Noble Tongue: Site dedicated to the technical analysis of J.R.R. Tolkien's Welsh inspired constructed language - Sindarin.
·Ido, linguo internaciona: Revue of sites about the International Language Ido, in different national languages.
·Indo-European Language Revival: The Dnghu Group supports and promotes the revival of Indo-European as a modern language. This site hosts news, manuals and software, and is the administrative center for Indo-European revival sites and online projects. Public participation is welcome.
·International Auxiliary Languages: Information on constructed languages for international use.
·Lara Language: "LARA" is an artistic fictional language, very easy to learn. Its creation began in 1991 and at present it has a complete grammar and more then 7000 words, most of which composed by no more then 2 syllables. There are several texts and translations in Lara language available on the Net. Members can find here the grammar, exercises and complete vocabulary.
·Lojban: Culturally neutral logical language.
·Láadan: The Women's Language: Site for Suzette Haden Elgin's women's language from her novels. The language has grown beyond the books. Good sci fi related language links and sites about her: she is a linguist.
·Omnesian: Omnesian, a new romance language created by Jordan Kay.
·The International Language Ido: Information on Ido, including vocabularies and news from the Ido movement.
·The Klingon Language Institute: The Klingon Language was invented by linguist Marc Okrand for Paramount Pictures Star Trek III: The Search for Spock, and has been used in subsequent movies and television shows. The language shows linguistically interesting features as a constructed language. The KLI is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization created to explore the only artificial language to acquire a following in popular culture.
·TOKI-IO: It's a minimal language, just a art-language, looking for the Toki Pona. The only originality of the toki-io is the numeric system: only 2 digits: i & o . But it's a complete system (base 2), with inversive writing: unit at the left, for talking clearly.

Endangered Languages

·Aboriginal Languages of Australia: Annotated links to all quality web resources for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages. A branch of Tim Berners-Lee's official WWW Virtual Library.
·Biao Min Case Study: From Notecards to the Web: Searchable lexicon and case study in digitizing EL materials, graciously provided by David Solnit, housed in the E-MELD School of Best Practices.
·Dena'ina Case Study: From Cassette to Easy-Access Software: This case study, utilizing data graciously provided by Dr. James Kari and hosted on the E-MELD School of Best Practices, shows the steps taken to convert cassette and open-reel recordings of traditional stories in Dena'ina Athabascan into a sentence-by-sentence, user-friendly HTML display of the stories and their translations.
·Ega Case Study: Multiple Formats to the Web: Online lexicon (in XML format) and case study in digitizing Ega materials, graciously provided to the E-MELD School of Best Practices by Dafydd Gibbon (Bielefeld), Bruce Connell (Oxford), and Firmin Ahoua (Cocody).
·Kayardild Case Study: From Shoebox to the Web (IGT): Case study on the digitization of Kayardild, also known as Gayardilt, utilizing data graciously provided to the E-MELD School of Best Practices by Dr. Nicholas Evans.
·Klamath / Modoc Linguistics Page: Linguistic information & resources on the Klamath-Modoc language.
·Lakota Language Consortium: The site provides a useful overview of the history and status of the Lakota language, describes the current revitalization initiative, and provides access to curriculum materials for young learners.
·Lingua siciliana / Sicilian language: Web site describing the Sicilian language.
·Linguasiciliana Forum: Forum in the Sicilian language.
·Michigamea: John Koontz University of Colorado Home Page: Information on Michigamea language once spoken in Illinois and speculation on its relation to Siouan.
·Mocovi Case Study: From Shoebox to the Web: Online lexicon and case study in digitizing EL materials, hosted on the E-MELD School of Best Practices utilizing data graciously provided by Dr. Verónica Grondona.
·Monguor Case Study: From TASX to the Web: Case study in digitizing EL materials, hosted on the E-MELD School of Best Practices, utilizing data graciously provided by Dr. Arienne Dwyer and Dr. Xianzhen Wang.
·Muscogee Creek Language Preservation Link: The Muscogee Creek Nation in Oklahoma has implemented a language preservation program in an effort to keep their language alive.
·Navajo Case Study: Ultrasound Analysis: A case study of Navajo endangered language data, hosted on the E-MELD School of Best Practices, and graciously provided by Dr. Doug Whalen.
·Potawatomi Case Study: From Filemaker Data to the Web: Searchable lexicon and case study in digitizing EL materials, hosted on the E-MELD School of Best Practices. The data was graciously provided by Laura Buszard-Welcher.
·Project for the Documentation of the Languages of Meso-america: Online dictionaries of Oluta Mijean (Mixean), San Miguel Chimalapa Soke (Zoque).
·Saliba Case Study: Searchable lexicon and case study in digitizing EL materials, graciously donated by Dr. Gary Simons and Dr. Paul Frank utilizing data collected by Nancy Morse, and hosted on the E-MELD School of Best Practices.
·Tofa Case Study: Online Video: Case study in digitizing EL materials, graciously provided to the E-MELD School of Best Practices by Dr. K. David Harrison.
·Western Sisaala Case Study: From Older Field Methods to BP: Lexicon and case study in endangered language materials, graciously provided to the E-MELD School of Best Practices by Steven Moran.

Language Families

·A possible homeland of the Indo-European homeland: Consequences of separation level method on subgrouping of Indo-European and working hypothesis of migrations in agreement with that.
·Altaic languages: The graphical models of relationship and the map of Turkic, Mongolian, Tungus, Korean and Japanese settlement areas in the time of forming of separate languages. The results were received by using Data base of An Internacional Etymological Database Project http://starling.rinet.ry
·Altaic Linguistics - Monumenta Altaica: Site devoted to the Altaic languages and linguistics. It contains texts in modern and ancient Altaic languages: Turkic, Mongolian, Manchu-tungus, Korean and Japanese; dictionaries, grammars, papers, bibliographies, etymological data.
·An Overview of the Uralic Languages and Peoples: The origins and modern situation of the Uralic language family.
·Database of Romani Dialects: Comprehensive documentation of over 150 varieties of the language; Phrase exemplification of all data in transliteration, translation and sound; Browse, search, and query facilities; Dynamic map-generating function plots feature distribution; Extensive Help menu; Link to Romani Linguistics Page with background information on the Romani language, bibliographical database for Romani linguistics, downloadable DVD presentation in 17 languages on the historical development of Romani and more.
·David Birnbaum's Slavic Languages page: Information on Slavic language family, Russian and East European Studies.
·Edenic: The First Language: New evidence supporting the monogenesis thesis, involving the scientifically proven honeland of agriculture and literacy: the Fertile Crescent. The oldest hyoid bone for human speech was found near Haifa, Israel, so other Proto-Earth theses NOT involving Pre-Hebrew involve chimp chatter of knuckle-walkers...and not modern human speech. The PIE efforts are shown to be neurologically scramled forms of this Pre-Hebrew called
·Etymological Table Dictionaries of Indoeuropean from INDIN: Etymological dictionary of Indo-European languages in table form on-line.
·Finnisch-Ugrische Forschungen: Information about Finno-Ugric languages.
·Finno-Ugric links: Collection of links to Uralic (Finno-Ugric) languages and resources.
·Gur Languages Page: Information on the Gur Languages of the Niger-Congo language family privided by Dept. of Linguistics, University of Vienna.
·Independent Investigations: Restoration of developmental history of Nostratic (Indoeuropean, Altaic, Uralic) languages using lexical-statistical method. Material is illustrated with maps.
·Ljuba Veselinova: Map Collection: A collection of linguistic maps showing geographic location and spread of language families and individual languages and dialects.
·Llengües del món: Classificació genètica de totes les llengües vives del món. Genetic classification of all living languages. Site in Catalan.
·Nostratic: Nostratic bibliography.
·Nuristani: Description of the Nuristani Languages
·Online Resource for Inuit Language Learning: An online resource for learning the Inuit Language.
·Orbis Latinus: Latin and Neo-Latin (Romance) languages: French, Italian, Portuguese, Rumanian, Spanish etc.
·Penutian: The Penutian language family of Oregon and California.
·Project for the Documentation of the Languages of Meso-america: Online dictionaries of Oluta Mijean (Mixean), San Miguel Chimalapa Soke (Zoque).
·Sino-Océanien: A study on the phylogeny of East Asian languages. The latter demonstrates the relationship of the four language families that are Sino-Tibetan, Mon-Khmer, Austronesian, and Japonic, being based on the identification of the linguistic system of the latter, and going beyond the standard categories of "monosyllabism" and "polysyllabism". Indeed, this research reveals that the continental forms called "monosyllabic" (for Sino-Tibetan and Mon-Khmer) are actually contractions of multiple quantities and qualities of roots called "polysyllabic" (as they are known in Austronesian and Japonic). By a study of several basic etymons and a comparatism on the aforementioned superfamily-wide scale, this research offers an epistemological criticism of the methodology employed for linguistic "reconstruction" in the fields of East Asian language families, showing that only a detailed analysis of the totality of phonemic elements (consonants and vowels included) allows the original roots' identification.
·Sino-Tibetan Language Relation: The Sino-Tibetan family consists of about 300 languages what arouses doubt on the possibility of ascertaining their relation by the graphical-analytical method without pre-classification by methods purely linguistic. This problem is still not fully resolved, but seven of these languages (Chinese, Tibetan, Burmese, Kachin, Lushai, Lepcha, and Kiranti) were singled out in the project
·TapaniSalminen: Information on Finno-Ugrian languages, within them Samoyed languages and the Forest Nenets and Tundra Nenets languages in particular; also information about endangered languages in Europe and Northeast Asia, with overall classifications of European and Northeast Asian languages.
·The ergativic stage of early Proto-Indoeuropean: Information on the ergativic stage of early Proto-Indoeuropean by Hans-Joachim Alscher.
·The Nilo-Saharan Language Family: Basic outline of languagae families in Africa, with some detail about Nilo-Saharan and Nilotic.
·The Turkic Languages in a Nutshell: A new classification of the Turkic languages based on the linguistic and historical research with maps and illustrations.
·Tibeto-Burman Languages: Tibeto-Burman language family.
·World Language Phyla/Family Mapping: Dr. Stephen Huffman has classified the languages of the Ethnologue into broader groupings following Merritt Ruhlen’s A Guide to the World’s Languages (published 1987, 1991 by Stanford University Press), and has produced as series of maps of language phyla and families using this classified data and several versions of GMI's World Language Mapping System and Seamless Digital Chart of the World geographic data sets. PDF versions of the maps available for download, as are Dr. Huffman's data table and ArcGIS project files. Maps available for download on the website include: The World's Language Phyla Languages of Africa Languages of the Horn of Africa Languages of China The Eurasiatic Language Phylum Languages of the Indian Subcontinent Languages of Southeast Asia Languages of Sudan The IndoEuropean Language Family Maps, classification tables, and map GIS projects have been updated to correspond to the 15th Edition Ethnologue (World Language Mapping System version 3.2) as of 4 April 2006. The updated maps have been produced using a superior PDF compression technique for greater detail and smaller download size.

Language Meta Sites

·Bisharat! A language, technology & development initiative: Site of an effort to facilitate the use of ICT in African languages for rural development. The current focus is on multilingual computing and internet applications. There are many resources and links, including some to specialized discussion forums.
·E-MELD School of Best Practice Case Studies: This site showcases several endangered languages, providing background information as well as detailed tutorials on how the language documentation was digitized and archived in best practice format.
·EUROMOSAIC. European Minority Languages Web Site: This site gives a lot of information about minority languages in the European Union. It includes reports and sociolinguistic surveys.
·Free access to Inttranews Archives for linguists: Inttranews, the leading wire service for the global language industry, now provides free access to its Archives for linguists. Rouen, France (for immediate release): Since the launch in October 2004 of Inttranews, the leading wire service for the global language industry, excerpts from more than 7,500 articles have been published on events and issues of interest or concern to linguists worldwide. These archives are an extremely valuable source of information for linguists, journalists, students and academic staff, as a research tool for articles, study papers or theses, as background data for marketing, for media and market surveys, and for business involving the language industry in general. Until today, however, to make downloading as fast as possible, only the last 10 days of articles were displayed on the site. Now with Inttranews Archives, readers have access free of charge to all the articles on-line, with searches by keyword. On average, 30 new articles are published each working day in the two language versions currently available (English and French). The articles are different in, and specific to each language version. To use Inttranews Archives, please visit and click on the 'Archives' link in the left-hand menu. News, not noise The quality of Inttranews is that it combines state-of-the-art information and communication technology with human editors, so that content is dedicated to readers' interests, unlike automated news aggregators. As a result, more than 10,000 linguists read Inttranews each month in international institutions, university departments, professional associations, translation services and companies, as well as salaried and freelance interpreters and translators in more than 40 countries. The service has been syndicated by institutions such as the International Federation of Translators (FIT) [], representing more than 100,000 interpreters and translators in 60 countries, and by the European Union of Associations of Translation Companies (EUATC) [], representing more than 500 translation companies in 20 countries. About Inttranews is one of a range of products for the global language industry designed and developed by HTT (, an ISO 9001 (v2000)-certified translation company specialized in high technology located in Rouen, France. Founded in 1987, its customer base comprises international institutions and multinational companies, particularly in aeronautics, electronic engineering, mechanical engineering and petrochemicals. Other products designed and developed by HTT include the multilingual Inttranet portal ( with a complete range of services for professional interpreters and translators, and Terminall, an ISO 12616-compliant multilingual terminology database, capable of storing, managing and displaying any language combination of search and target terms. HTT s.a. 216, route de Neufchâtel, 76420 Bihorel, France Plc with a capital of EUR 100,000.
·iLoveLanguages Page: A comprehensive catalog of language-related Internet resources.
·LingForum.Com: An academic forum website for the discussion of anything related to linguistics. Subcategories include syntax, semantics, morphology, phonology, first and second language acquisition, sociolinguistics, computational linguistics, historical linguistics and others.
·Rosetta Project: The Rosetta Project is a global collaboration of language specialists and native speakers building a publicly accessible online archive of ALL documented human languages.
·Slang Links: Useful links to English and Scandinavian slang-related sites.
·Stack Exchange English Language & Usage: English Language & Usage is a collaboratively edited site focused on high quality Q&A regarding grammar, etymology, word choice, learning English as a second language, and other related topics.
·Stanford University Listing: Linguistics, Natural Language, and Computational Linguistics Meta-index
·University of Calgary Phonetic Inventory at Fresno State: A collection of recording sessions (sound files) with native speakers illustrating all speech sounds of 45+ languages. Documentation files with session script and IPA transcription also available for download.
·University of Helsinki Language Corpus Server (UHLCS): The University of Helsinki Language Corpus Server (UHLCS) is a multilingual databank and data server located at the Department of General Linguistics, the University of Helsinki.

Natural Languages

·Aymara Uta: An introduction to Aymara language. It contains a mailing list, a chart of the paradigm of the verbs, etc. etc.
·Bishnupriya Manipuri Language: A website about the Bishnupriya Manipuri Language language, which was driven out of states court language, retained by the Aryan people in Manipur and which they took shelter in Assam, Tripura, Burma and Bangladesh.
·Blog de viajes speakfun: Blog de viajes donde encontraras noticias y anecdotas que nos han pasado cuando hemos viajado a los lugares en los cuales estas pensando viajar ahora mismo.
·Creek Language Archive: A collection of letters, stories, pedagogical materials, and songs, sometimes with sound recordings, in the Creek (Muskogee) language of east-central Oklahoma.
·Cultura Valenciana: Information about the history of the Valencian language and Valencian literature. Web site in Valencian.
·Database of Romani Dialects: Comprehensive documentation of over 150 varieties of the language; Phrase exemplification of all data in transliteration, translation and sound; Browse, search, and query facilities; Dynamic map-generating function plots feature distribution; Extensive Help menu; Link to Romani Linguistics Page with background information on the Romani language, bibliographical database for Romani linguistics, downloadable DVD presentation in 17 languages on the historical development of Romani and more.
·Die arabische Sprache und Schrift: All about the Arabic language: history, system, learning, software, calligraphy.
·Dolomitic Ladin: Linguistic Atlas of Dolomitic Ladin - (ALD I)
·Dutch Language: Dutch language schools, dictionary, words and other resources
·El Portal de la India Antigua: Dedicated to diffuse the knowledge of Sanskrit and the civilization of ancient India in the Spanish speaking world, containing a step-by-step Sanskrit course in the form of downloadable pdf files.
·Etruscan Phrases: Etruscan Phrases showing Etruscan conjugation and declension patterns, vocabulary and translations; Etruscan etymological relationships to other Indo-European languages;
·FACAO: Federation of Cultural Associations of the Oriental Aragon (FACAO) dedicated to the promotion and preservation of the Oriental Aragonese language. Grammar of the Oriental Aragonese is available.
·Gothic Yiddish: A site about the history and geography of Yiddish and the concept of a diasystem.
·Gramática Popular del Triqui de Copala: A nontechnical description of the Copala Trique language organized by parts of speech, written in Spanish. Four analyzed texts and an appendix giving detailed information about tone changes are included, plus a separate file for the cover.
·Greek Language: Greek language schools, dictionary, words and other resources about Greek.
·Greek Language and Linguistics Gateway: Information about Greek language and bibliographic recourses on Greek linguistics.
·Hindi: Language of the Songs: Information about Hindi language, its dialects, history, and other resources.
·History of Kannada Language: Dr. Jyotsna Kamat traces the roots of Dravidian language Kannada and discusses various literary movements over the centuries.
·HUTERM Hungarian and English linguistic resources for Brussels-based Hungarian professionals: HUTERM is portal with a plethora of linguistic resources for Hungarian professionals with linguistic tasks at EU institutions: Council, Commission, Parliament, Central Bank, Court of Auditors, European Court, Committee of the Regions, Economic and Social Committee, SdT, CdT, SCIC and their partners: Hungarian ministries and especially the Ministry of Justice, universities, Hungarian Terminology Council + a number of translation agencies, freelance translators and interpreters based in Hungary.
·Ibanag Language: Ibanag Language Background. Includes texts, songs, and bibliography.
·Ilokano (Ilocano) Language: General Information about the Iloko (Ilocano) language, 9 million speakers, N. Luzon, Philippines.
·Inuktitut Project: Learning Materials - Syllabics: A chart showing the symbols in the Inuktitut syllabary, with audio files in .mp3 format illustrating the pronunciation of each syllable in the South Baffin dialect.
·LDC Language Resource Wiki: This wiki is intended to serve as a meta-resource on language resources for the research community, especially for under-resourced languages. Anyone can browse and read it, but writing is restricted to approved editors. We are seeding it from our own found resources, but we hope that other researchers will enlarge it in breadth of languages covered and in depth of detail. We are also seeking to add pages about special areas of interest, such as language-independent NLP resources, resources for endangered languages, and resources for signed languages. This is more a listing of longterm resources than a calendar of events. If you would like to contribute, see our home page for details.
·MuturZikin - Linguistic maps / Cartes linguistiques [en][fr][eu][es]: Linguistic maps of Europe, Africa, South and Central America, Canada and Basque Country. We provide useful and practical information for thousands languages displayed on specific geographic areas
·Noun Classification in Swahili: Searchable index of the swahili database, as well as a report on a two-phase study of the semantics and syntax of noun classification in Swahili by Ellen Contini-Morava.
·Nuristan: A site on the Nuristani group of Indo-European languages
·Occitan: Information about Occitan (in Occitan, English, and French).
·Proto-Indo-European Religion: This website gives information on the reconstruction of the Proto-Indo-European Religion, including the gods and goddesses, myths, festivals and rituals, based on standard methods of linguistic analysis of the Indo-European languages.
·Shingazidja Homepage: A homepage for people interested in learning about the Bantu dialect of the Comoros Island, Shingazidja.
·Siraiki: Siraiki is an old language of Indus valley .Now its area is centeral Pakistan (south asia).It is supposed that siraiki belongs with indo-aryan family of languages ,but according to new research ,this language belongs with Austro-Asiatic languages' family .Its main group is Munda family group and its base is in Mundari language ,because Munda tribes were first inhabitants of indus valley and several languages of Pakistan are Munda oriented languages like Siraiki and Sindhi
·Sk'op Sotz'leb: an On-line Grammar of Zinacantec Tzotzil (Mayan): Includes sample dialogues and audio files.
·Staropolska: A polyglot website concerning the first poem composed in Polish.
·Sumerian Language Page: Includes a lexicon of over 1,100 Sumerian logograms and a paper on The Proto-Sumerian Language Invention Process; also maps, proverbs.
·Swedish Sign Language: Research, teaching and lectures in Swedish sign language.
·Thai Language Page: Information on various aspects of Thai language, and basic Thai phrases with audio files.
·The Dacian Language: A description of the Dacian language, an ancient language of the Balkans.
·The Lak Language: A Quick Reference: A brief and sketchy description of Lak, an Central East Caucasian language. It includes areal information, a grammar section and a fully glossed sample text.
·The Language Contact Website: The site contains brief explanation about language contact phenomena, accompanied by case studies with examples, including transcription and sound, and discussion.
·The Lycian Language: This page describes the Lycian A language.
·The Messapic Language: A description of Messapic, an ancient language of the Balkans.
·The Picene Language: A description of Picene, a language (or languages) spoken in ancient Italy.
·The Sanskrit Web Site: Site in English/Spanish with tons of knowledge about Sanskrit, Trika and Meditation.
·The Survey of English Usage: The Survey of English Usage based at the University College London.
·The Umbrian Language: A description of Umbrian, a language spoken in ancient Italy
·The Venetic Language: A description of Ventic, an ancient language of northeastern Italy and Slovenia.
·The web's largest collection of Polish and English dictionaries and glossaries, translators on-line resources.: Polish and English dictionaries, glossaries, and resources for translators. Terminology and translation tools.
·Trouble with Indian Names: Writers who use the English language to write about India are always faced with a dilemma on how best to spell the Indian names. A brief summary of common problems is listed here.
·Tundra Nenets: Description of the Tundra Nenets language.
·Udi Online Grammar: A comprehensive description of Udi (East Cauacsian) from a functional, typological (in parts cognitive) point of view, including audio samples, texts with glosses.
·Uiquipedia: The free encyclopedia project in Valencian language. Everyone can create and search articles and information.
·University of Calgary Phonetic Inventory at Fresno State: A collection of recording sessions (sound files) with native speakers illustrating all speech sounds of 45+ languages. Documentation files with session script and IPA transcription also available for download.
· This international site for the Valencian language is a project of the Section of Language and Literature of the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture for the international promotion of the Valencian. E-books, articles, studies, news, resources, links and full information about the Valencian. Web versions in English, Spanish, German, French and Valencian.
·Valencià d'Elig: Dedicated to the Valencian language spoken in the Valencian area of Elig. General and local documentation about the Valencian. Web versions in Spanish and Valencian.
·Variation and Change in Dublin English: This website is dedicated to variation and change in the pronunciation of present-day Dublin English. The site is arranged as a tree with branches which correspond to various aspects of this topic. There are comprehensive sections on the history of Irish English, and of Dublin English in particular, along with discussions of features on various linguistic levels and the sociolinguistics of present-day Dublin English. In addition the website deals with the theoretical implications of current change in Dublin English for sociolinguistic research in general. Sample sound files for a range of varieties in Dublin are available on the website so that users can immediately grasp the issues which are being discussed in any given module. Detailed bibliographical references are contained in each section so that interested scholars and students can further pursue matters further. Glossaries, overviews of external history and biographical notes are also included, providing easy orientation for those who have not previously concerned themselves with Dublin English.
·Verb Index to Levin (1993): Index from English Verb Classes And Alternations: A Preliminary Investigation, by Beth Levin.
·Virtual Livonia: The only web-page in the world dedicated exclusively to Livonian, Livonia and Livs.
·Wir Ain Leid: Introduction to modern Scots Grammar.
·World Languages Quiz: Quiz to name the most spoken languages in the world.

Writing Systems

·Ancient Baybayin Scripts Network: The Ancient Baybayin Scripts Network(ABSN) is a community of open forum academic exchange & discussion on the ancient writing scripts & writing systems of the Philippines.We welcome new diverse perspectives on news and updates on the current situation of Baybayin(Alibata)scripts of today.Enjoy learning and writing Baybayin in the many languages of the Philippines. The Alibata forum brings unique,rare, and diverse topics about Ivatan syntax, Igorot Studies, Hanunoo-Mangyan poetry, Kinaray-a semantics, ambahan, computer fonts, ethnobotany, ethnopoetics, Surat Mangyan, Philippine ethnolinguistic groups, epigraphy, ethnomedicine, Aklanon phonetics, Bisayan genetic classification, Pangasinan grammar, Sambal proverbs, Agta linguistics, Ilonggo morphology, Mindanao news, & Lumad tribes. We encourage new opportunities to interact with others in learning new languages with different syllabic, alphabetic, & logographic writing systems & see how it affected the evolution of baybayin scripts. We are a unique group that advocates unity in topics of Cebuano phonology, Kapampangan Studies, Ilokano lexicography, Waray language, Hiligaynon literature, ethnosphere, Austronesian Studies, orthography, paleography, calligraphy,& Bicolano ethnomusicology. We appreciate any advertisements for nonprofit virtual activism & resources that promotes advocacy for linguistic rights , ancestral rights, cultural rights, and indigenous rights. Join us in the research in Austronesian genetics, migrations, navigation, cultural survival, and human rights that affect the greater understanding of the Austronesian Diaspora and baybayin. We encourage new methods on deciphering archaelogical baybayin artifacts, pottery, inscriptions, rock art, petroglyphs, and pictograph characters found throughout the Philippine Islands. The ABSN is your networking community where we begin our travel together into new journeys of Baybayin knowledge,& where the celebrations of network friendships and respect never ends.
·Ancient This site provides very comprehensive information on ancient writing systems.
·Iberian Epigraphy Page: Set of pages on the state of the art of the knowledge on the ancient Iberian language with selected bibliography, and an anthlogy of texts (some commented). It has also some information on other Palaeohispanic languages and has updated sign tables of the Eastern Iberian, South Iberian, Sudlusitanian-Tartessian, an Celtiberian scripts.
·Luganda Home Page: Introduction to the standard orthography and grammar.
·N'ko Institute: This page is dedicated to the exploration of N'Ko, and all the speakers of the "Clear Language" of Manden.
·Omniglot: A handy online reference to over 160 alphabets, syllabaries and other writing systems.
·Pazuru Alfabet: Self-evaluation software for learning the Japanese phonetic scripts hiragana and katakana. This software is completely free and portable (does not require installation) for all Windows platforms, and there are not any specific minimum requirements.
·Rongorongo, Easter Island Writing: Easter Island (Rapa Nui), a remote islet in the Pacific Ocean, keeps many secrets. The real hieroglyphic script, rongorongo, is a feature of its ancient culture. Sergei V. Rjabchikov succeeded in decoding these mysterious characters. His papers are published below. A new article is called
·Trouble with Indian Names: Writers who use the English language to write about India are always faced with a dilemma on how best to spell the Indian names. A brief summary of common problems is listed here.
·Written language guide: Written language guide of European languages and their differences. Alphabets, samples of translations and general cultural customs.