THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET(revised to 1993, updated 1996)
Copyright International Phonetic Association, from the Department of Linguistics, University of Victoria, Canada

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Pulmonic consonants
 
 Plosive
   
 
 
 
 
 Nasal
 
 
 
   
 Trill
   
 
 
 
   
   
 
 
   
 
 Tap or Flap
   
 
 
 
 
   
 
   
   
 
 Fricative
 Lateral  fricative    

 

 
   
   
   
   
   
 Approximant
 
 
 
 
 
   
   
 
 Lateral  approximant    
 
 
 
 
 
   
   
    When symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.



CONSONANTS (NON-PULMONIC)
Clicks
Voiced implosives
Ejectives
Bilabial
Dental
(Post)alveolar
Palatoalveolar
Aveolar lateral
Bilabial
Dental/alveolar
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Examples:
 Bilabial
 Dental/alveolar
 Velar
 Alveolar fricative
Vowels Front         Central         Back
Close
     
     
                         
Close-mid        
     
                             
Open-mid        
 
   
                             
Open            
       


OTHER SYMBOLS
 Voiceless labial-velar fricative  Alveolo-palatal fricatives  
 Voiced labial-velar approximant  Voiced alveolar lateral flap  
 Voiced labial-palatal approximant Simultaneous ʃ and x  
 Voiceless epiglottal fricative

 Affricates and double articulations
 can be represented by two symbols
 joined by a tie bar if necessary.

kp͡
 Voiced epiglottal fricative
 Epiglottal plosive

DIACRITICS Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g. ŋ̊
Voiceless
n̥d̥
Breathy voiced
b̤a̤
Dental
 t ̪d̪
Voiced
s̬ t ̬
  ̰
Creaky voiced
b̰a̰
Apical
 t ̺d̺
Aspirated
tʰdʰ
Linguolabial
 t ̼d̼
Laminal
 t ̻d̻
More Rounded
ɔ̹
Labialized
tʷdʷ
Nasalized
Less Rounded
ɔ̜
Palatalized
tʲdʲ
Nasal release
dⁿ
Advanced
Velarized
tˠdˠ
Lateral release
Retracted
Pharyngealized
tˤdˤ
No audible release
d ̚
Centralized
Velarized or pharyngealized
Mid-centralized
Raised e̝    (ɹ ̝= voiced alveolar fricative)
Syllabic
Lowered e̞    (β̞ = voiced bilabial approximant)
Non-syllabic
Advanced Tongue Root
Rhoticity
Retracted Tongue Root
SUPRASEGMENTALS
Primary stress
Secondary stress
stress eg. ˌfoʊnəˈtɪʃən
ː Long eː
ˑ Half-long eˑ
  ̆ Extra-short
Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
Syllabic break
break eg.  ɹi.ækt
Linking (absence of a break)


TONES AND WORD ACCENTS
Level
Contour
or ˥ Extra high NOT YET
or ˦ High SUPPORTED
or ˧ Mid BY
or ˨ Low UNICODE
or ˩ Extra low
Downstep Global rise
Upstep Global fall


Some useful precomposed characters that do not fit into the official IPA.
ʗ ʣ ʤ ʥ ɝ ʚ ɩ ʞ ł
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ʠ ʚ ɼ ɿ ʅ ʆ ʇ ʨ
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ʧ ʦ λ ƛ ʖ ƾ
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Miscellaneous modifiers.
ʱ ʲ ˡ ʳ ʴ ʵ ʶ ˢ ʸ
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ˣ ˀ ˁ ˤ