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Lingfields Quick Guide

Anthropological Linguistics
Applied Linguistics
Cognitive Science
Computational Linguistics
Discipline of Linguistics
Discourse Analysis
Forensic Linguistics
General Linguistics
Genetic Classification
Historical Linguistics
History of Linguistics
Language Acquisition
Language Description
Linguistics and Literature
Linguistic Theories
Not Applicable
Philosophy of Language
Text and Corpus Linguistics
Writing Systems

Anthropological Linguistics: Includes Ethnolinguistics.
Examples: The SIL Ethnologue, which collects data on the number of speakers of a language and the geographical region in which it is spoken.

Applied Linguistics: Includes Bilingualism/Multilingualism, Contrastive Ling, ESL, Education, English Lang Studies, Literacy, Methodology, Second Language Teaching, TESOL, Writing.
Examples: Teaching materials, guides for language teachers, and studies of adult language learning.

Cognitive Science:
Examples: An experiment on language and vision or a book on the study of mind.

Computational Linguistics: Includes Artificial Intelligence, Computers and Linguistics, Machine Translation, Mathematical Ling, Natural Language Processing, Text-to-speech.
Examples: Books and papers dealing with Machine Translation, Text to Speech software, and algorithms to parse sentences.

Discipline of Linguistics: Includes resources which are about linguists or the study of linguistics.
Examples: an E-MELD paper giving guidelines to the linguistics community about archiving.

Discourse Analysis: Includes Conversation Analysis, Courtroom discourse, Interactional Sociolinguistics, Humor.
Examples: Transcripts of discourse, perhaps with turn taking and speaker overlap highlighted; papers on Discourse Representation Theory or on different talk types such as doctor/patient interaction; and audio and video tapes of interactive discourse which might serve as an object of study.

Forensic Linguistics: Includes Language and the Law.
Examples: Papers on issues in dispute in court cases, e.g., authorship identification, assessment of ambiguity in texts, voice attribution. Analyses of courtroom language are best classified under 'Discourse Analysis.'

General Linguistics: Includes linguistic encyclopaedias.
Examples: Broad, often introductory textbooks such as The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Language (Crystal, 1987), and glossaries of linguistic terminology. Resources that cover many subfields in depth, perhaps a dissertation on an endangered language with a detailed syntactic and phonological analysis, should be classified under all the relevant subfields instead of 'General Linguistics'.

Genetic Classification:
Examples: A study of genetic relationships within the Afroasiatic family.

Historical Linguistics: Includes Etymology, Language Change, Language Prehistory.
Examples: A study of the diachronic development of vowels in Romance.

History of Linguistics:
Examples: A biography of Ferdinand de Saussure, or an analysis of Plato's discussions on language.

Language Acquisition:
Examples: First/Second Language Acquisition experiments; guides to experimental techniques in eliciting acquisition data. (Language teaching is 'Applied Linguistics').

Language Description: Includes Grammars; publications that describe the syntax, phonology, use etc. of a language or family without necessarily making any theoretical claims. Dictionaries go under lexicography.

Lexicography: Includes dictionaries.
Examples: Books and papers about creating dictionaries. Swadesh word lists, a bilingual Avestan-Engliah dictionary, and a collection of legal terms in a particular language.

Linguistics and Literature: Includes poetics and stylistics.
Examples: An analysis of lexical patterns characteristic of a particular author or syntactic constructions used to create specific literary effects.

Linguistic Theories: Includes Functional and Systematic Ling, Generative Ling.
Examples: Papers arguing for or against Universal Grammar, Transformational Grammar, or Montague Grammar.

Examples: A paper on morphological theory, Word Grammar (Hudson).

Examples: A study of brain damage with respect to language impairment, a study of the neurological development of the brain during first language acquisition. The latter should also be classified as 'Language Acquisition.'

Not Applicable:
Examples: Obituaries.

Philosophy of Language:
Examples: A paper on the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, a comparative study of verbal and non-verbal thought.

Phonetics: Includes Articulatory Phonetics, Acoustic Phonetics, Auditory Phonetics.
Examples: A sound inventory of a language, a study of the variation of articulation of a particular sound. Experimentation results should be classified under 'Phonetics' if they have particular relevance to the sounds of the language.

Examples: Phonological theories applied to a particular language; that is, a study of the syllable structure of a language, or the rules behind sound alternations.

Pragmatics: Includes non-verbal communication, language use.
Examples: A study of politeness phenomena, honorifics, deixis or speech acts.

Psycholinguistics: Includes Specific Language Impairment.
Examples: A cross-linguistic study of acquisition of a particular syntactic constraint, a study of aphasic children's language development.

Semantics: Includes logic.
Examples: A paper on a semantic theory, such as Truth Conditional Semantics. A paper on color lexemes in a particular language.

Sociolinguistics: Includes Cross-Cultural Communication, Dialectology, Folklore, Lang Contact, Lang & Culture, Lang Death, Lang & Gender, Language Planning, Lang Variation, Pidgins & Creoles, Planned Languages, Politics & Lang.

Examples: A syntactic description of a language, using a particular syntactic theory. A paper using language data to criticize a syntactic theory.

Text and Corpus Linguistics: Includes Genre Analysis, Semiotics.
Examples: A statistical analysis of the British National Corpus, on the use of modal verbs in spoken and written English.

Examples: A study of the relative merits of different levels of translation (that is, literal translation, word-for-word translation and so on).

Typology: Includes Universals, Lang classification (regardless of genetic relation).
Examples: An analysis of a poorly documented language in terms of Greenberg's Universals.

Writing Systems: Includes logographic, syllabic, alphabetic systems.
Example: A paper examining issues in a linguist's development of a writing system for a previously unwritten language. An examination of pictographic writing systems. A book on the decipherment of Linear B.