LINGUIST List 10.1487

Fri Oct 8 1999

Books: Mathematical Linguistics

Editor for this issue: Scott Fults <scottlinguistlist.org>


Links to the websites of all LINGUIST's supporting publishers are available at the end of this issue.

Directory

  1. LINCOM EUROPA, H. M. Hubey, Mathematical Foundations of Linguistics

Message 1: H. M. Hubey, Mathematical Foundations of Linguistics

Date: Mon, 04 Oct 1999 19:56:00 +0200
From: LINCOM EUROPA <LINCOM.EUROPAt-online.de>
Subject: H. M. Hubey, Mathematical Foundations of Linguistics

MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF LINGUISTICS 
H. Mark Hubey, Montclair State University 

	Only a few decades ago, only mathematicians, physicists and
engineers took calculus courses, and calculus was tailored for them
using examples from physics. This made it difficult for students from
the life sciences including biology, economics, and psychology to
learn mathematics. Recently books using examples from the life
sciences and economics have become more popular for such
students. Such a math book does not exist for linguists. Even the
computational linguistics books (Formal Language Theory) are written
for mathematicians and computer scientists.

	This book is for linguists. It is intended to teach the
required math for a student to be a scientific linguist and to make
linguistics a science on par with economics, and computer science.

	There are many concepts that are central to the sciences. Most
students never see these in one place and if they do, they have to
wait until graduate school to obtain them in the often-dreaded
"quantitative" courses. As a result sometimes it takes years or even
decades before learners are able to integrate what they have learned
into a whole, if ever. We have little time and much to do.

	In addition to all of these problems we are now awash in data
and information. It is now that the general public should be made
aware of the solution to all of these problems. The answer is
obviously "knowledge compression". Knowledge is structured
information; it is a system not merely a collection of interesting
facts.

	What this book does, and what all other math books do is teach
people the tools with which they can structure and thus compress
information and knowledge around them. It has also been said that
mathematics is the science of patterns; it is exactly by finding such
patterns that we compress knowledge. We can say that mathematics is
the science of knowledge compression or information compression.

	This book provides the basic tools for mathematics (even
including a short and intuitive explanation of differential and
integral calculus). The broad areas of linguistics, probability
theory, speech synthesis, speech recognition, computational
linguistics (formal languages and machines), historical linguistics
require mathematics of counting/combinatorics, Bayesian theory,
correlation-regression analysis, stochastic processes, differential
equations, vectors/tensors. These in turn are based on set theory,
logic, measurement theory, graph theory, algebra, Boolean algebra,
harmonic analysis etc.

	The mathematical fields introduced here are all common ideas
from one which one can branch off into more advanced study in any of
these fields thus this book brings together ideas from many disparate
fields of mathematics which would not normally be put together into a
single course. This is what makes this a book especially written for
linguists.


Table of Contents:

1. Generic Building Blocks
Layering
Numerals, Multiplication, Constants and Variables
Summation--Gauss
Zeno's Paradox and Euler
Continuous Products
Decision Trees, Prisoner's Dilemma
CPM/PERT Methods

2. Symbolic Computation, Iteration and Recursion
Algorithmic Definition of Integers
Parallel and Serial Choices
Multiplicative vs. Additive Intelligence
Strong vs. Long Chain Trade-off
Recursion/Iteration and Solution of a Nonlinear Equation
Programming Charts 
Learning Iteration
Frequency vs. Wavelength

3. Basic Counting and Reasoning Principles
Product, Series
Logical-AND Rule

4. Hazards of Doing Science
Dimensionless Numbers
Mass vs. Surface Area

5. Normalization
Grade Normalization, Boxing 
Normalization
Extensive vs. Intensive Variables
Gymnastics & Diving
Boyle's Law and Charles's Law
Color Space & Vectors
Torque
Brain and Body Mass

6. Accuracy and Precision
Significant Digits
Paleontology

7. Reliability and Validity
Ratio Scale
Distance
Hamming Distance
Phonological Distance -- Distinctive Features
Vowels and Consonants- Ordinal Cube
What's a Bird?
Interval Scale
Temperature Scale
Ordinal Scale
Likert Scale
Nominal Scale
Sets, and Categorization

8. Sets: An Introduction
Languages
Cardinality, Empty Set
Union, Intersection, Partition, Power Set, Complement, Difference
Characteristic Bitstrings (functions)
9. Graphs: An Introduction
Subgraphs, Unions & Intersections of Graphs
Graph Representation: Incidence, Adjacency, 
Degree, Paths, Digraphs
Hypercubes, Complete Graphs, Bipartite Graphs
Multiple Comparisons of Historical Linguistics
Representation: Incidence and Adjacency Matrices
Euler Circuits

10. Objects & Spaces
Cartesian Products, Vectors, Matrices, Tensors
Matrix Multiplication
Zero-One Matrices, Toeplitz matrices
Markov Matrices, Leontieff Matrices, Phonotactics Matrices
Rotation Matrices of Computer Graphics
Sonority Scale and Vectors
Venn Diagrams (Set Independence?)

11. Algebra: How many kinds are there?
Arithmetic
Language Capability
Substitutes and complements
Intelligence Theory and Testing

12. Boolean algebra
Infinity Arithmetic
Electrical Circuits and Infinity
Parallel Circuits vs. Series Circuits
XOR, EQ
Representation of Integers
Hamming Distance and XOR
Phoneme Maps 

13. Propositional Logic
Implication
Hempel's Raven paradox
Paradoxes of Logic
Rules of Inference
Fallacies
Integers: Division Algorithm
Divisibility
Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
gcd, and lcm
Mod, Div, and All that (methods of proof)
Congruence Mod m
Pseudo-Random Number Generators
Caesar Cipher, ROT13, Comparative Method
Fuzzy Logic 
Appendix: Axiomatizations of Logic

14. Quantification
Syllogisms
Continuous Products & Continuous Sums
Predicates
Quantification of Two Variables
Mathematical Induction
Time-Space Super-Liar Paradox

15. Relations
Reflexive, Symmetric, Anti-symmetric, Transitive relations
Representation of Relations
Set-theoretic representation
Matrix-representation
Graph-theoretic representation

16. Boolean Matrices and Relations
Composition of Relations--associative operation
Powers of Matrices of Relations
Equivalence Relation
Inverses
Operators and Operands (see Section 26: Operator Theory)

17. Partially Ordered Sets: partitions
Hasse Diagrams -- prerequisite structure of this book
Lattices, Subsets

18. Functions, Graphs, Vectors
One-to-One Functions
Onto Functions
One-to-one correspondence
Function Inverse
Graph Isomorphism
Minimal Spanning Trees
Family Trees
Cladistics
Genetic Tree of Indo-European Languages and Isoglosses
Vector Functions
Distances on Vectors, Weighted Distances
Intelligence Measurement
Systems of Equations -- Algebraic Modeling

19. Asymptotic Analysis and Limits
Big-O notation

20. Fuzzy Logic
Axioms
Invariants of Logic
Continuous Logics
Generalized Idempotent and Continuous Max-Min Operators

21. Counting Principles
Pigeonhole Principle
Sound Changes
Permutations
Combinations
Words, Subsets, Sentences, Constrained Sentences
Queues, Books, Phonotactics, Length constraints
Distributing Objects to Containers
Vervet Languages
Distribution of Meanings
Pascal's Identity, Vandermonde's Identity, Binomial Theorem 
Inclusion-Exclusion Theorem
False Cognacy Problem

22. Induction, Recursion, Summation

23. Recurrence, Iteration, Counting
Linear homogeneous first-order difference equation
Fibonacci Series
False Cognacy Problem 
Coupled Difference Equations
Bitstrings and Polynomials
Polya's Method of Counting

24. Formal Language Theory
Real Human Languages
Finite State Automata and Regular Languages
Context-Free Languages
Context-Sensitive Languages and Natural Languages

25. Simple Calculus
Rates 
Integration from Summation

26. Probability Fundamentals
Addition Theorem
Multiplication Theorem
Independence And Conditional Probability

27. Discrete Probability Theory from Counting 

28. Bayes Theorem

29. Operator Theory (see Chapter 17)
Linear Operators
Commutativity
Integration and Differentiation

30. Statistics
Histogram
Correlation-Regression

31. Expectation Operator & Density Functions
Expectation and Moments

32. Discrete Probability Functions (Mass Functions)
Uniform
Geometric - Bernoulli 
Binomial
Hypergeometric
Poisson 
Birthday Problem

33. Continuous Probability Density Functions
Uniform
Exponential
Gamma Density and Chi-Square Density
Gaussian Density and the Central Limit Theorem
34. Joint and Marginal Density Functions

35. Stochastic Processes
Stationarity
Markov Processes
Chapman-Kolmogorov Equations
Speech Recognition
Random Walk

36. Harmonic Analysis
Delta function
Fourier Series and Fourier Transform

37. Differential Equations, Green's Function and the Convolution
Integral
Complete solution of the First Order Linear DE
Carbon Dating
Menzerath's Law
Altmann's Law
Damped Harmonic Oscillator
 
38. Time and Ensemble Moments - Stationarity and Ergodicity
Stationarity
Ensemble Correlation Functions
Time Averages and Ergodicity

39. Characteristic Functions, Moments and Cumulants

40. Stochastic Response of Linear Systems
Example of Word Production in a Language
Stochastic Excitation of the DHO

41. Fokker-Planck- Kolmogorov Methods
Generalization of the Random Walk
Replacement of a General Process by a Markov Process

Appendices; Calculation of some integrals;
References.

ISBN 3 89586 641 5.
LINCOM Handbooks in Linguistics 10. 
260 pp. Pb: EUR 36.81 / USD 48 / DM 72 

ISBN 3 89586 923 6. 
LINCOM Handbooks in Linguistics 10 (Hardcover). 
260 pp. Hb: EUR 67.49 / USD 73 / DM 132 


Ordering information for individuals: Please give us your creditcard no.
/ expiry date or send us a cheque. Prices in this information include
shipment worldwide by airmail. A standing order for this series is
available with special discounts offered to individual subscribers. 

LINCOM EUROPA, Paul-Preuss-Str. 25, D-80995 Muenchen, Germany; FAX +4989
3148909; 
http://home.t-online.de/home/LINCOM.EUROPA
LINCOM.EUROPAt-online.de.
Mail to author|Respond to list|Read more issues|LINGUIST home page|Top of issue
Contributors1999 If  you buy one of these books please tell the publisher or author that you saw it on LINGUIST.


The following publishers contribute to the support of The LINGUIST List:



----------------- Major Supporters ----------------

Arnold Publishers

http://www.arnoldpublishers.com

Blackwell Publishers

http://www.blackwellpublishers.co.uk/

Cambridge UP

Cascadilla Press

http://www.cascadilla.com/

Elsevier Science Ltd.

http://www.elsevier.nl/

Holland Academic Graphics

http://www.hagpub.com/

John Benjamins

http://www.benjamins.com/

Kluwer Academic Publishers

http://www.wkap.nl/

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

http://www.erlbaum.com/

Lincom Europa

http://home.t-online.de/home/LINCOM.EUROPA

MIT Press (Books)

http://mitpress.mit.edu/books-legacy.tcl

Mouton deGruyter

http://www.deGruyter.de/hling.html

Multilingual Matters

http://www.multilingual-matters.com/

Oxford UP

http://www.oup-usa.org/

Routledge

http://www.routledge.com/

Summer Institute of Linguistics

http://www.sil.org/acpub/
---------- Other Supporting Publishers ---------

Anthropological Linguistics

http://www.indiana.edu/~anthling/

Finno-Ugrian Society

www.helsinki.fi/jarj/sus/

International Pragmatics Assoc.

http://ipra-www.uia.ac.be/ipra/

IULC Publications

http://php.indiana.edu/~iulc/

Vaxjo: Acta Wexionesia