LINGUIST List 12.1646

Fri Jun 22 2001

Books: Pragmatics / Caucasian Linguistics

Editor for this issue: Naomi Ogasawara <>

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  • LINCOM EUROPA, Pragmatics: Speaking of Power by H. Abe
  • LINCOM EUROPA, Caucasian Linguistics: The Udi Gospels by W. Schulze

    Message 1: Pragmatics: Speaking of Power by H. Abe

    Date: Fri, 22 Jun 2001 11:45:38 +0200
    From: LINCOM EUROPA <>
    Subject: Pragmatics: Speaking of Power by H. Abe

    Speaking of Power: Japanese Professional Women and Their Speeches HIDEKO ABE Western Michigan University

    There are three issues in the speech of Japanese women which need reevaluation: women's speech as categorical, as powerless, and as marked. Previous studies on Japanese women's speech characterized it "polite", "soft", or "less assertive"; however, the author challenges these assertions and examines how women "control" their speech in interaction. There are pressing questions as to what it is to obtain communicative competence as Japanese women, how women obtain what they want, how women manipulate their speech to satisfy their goals, and how women's role and/or status affects how they speak. In order to answer these questions, the author looks to various immediate speech contexts in which frequent inguistic shifts are observed. For instance, native speakers of Japanese associate sentence-final particles with gender, so by looking at these (with the combination of distal and direct styles of predicates), the author analyzes how women navigate "masculinity" or "femininity" in speech in order to negotiate power. While some women prefer using so-called "masculine" sentence-final particles in business negotiation, others prefer "feminine" ones. The author finds that urban professional Japanese women are aware of the distinction between the "femininity" and "masculinity" attached to a sentence-final particle. That difference is distinguishable, but it is generally idealized along the lines of dominant gender stereotypes: men's language=strong /women's language=weak. Significantly, female consultants consistently use both. In other words, they can successfully negotiate both "masculinity" and "femininity" without being constrained by either. Some consultants appropriate men's language while struggling for power, turning the stereotype to their own advantage. Other consultants who have established their power use feminine forms in just as powerful ways. The status of position outweighs the weakness implied by the stereotype.

    2nd edition

    ISBN 3 89586 890 6. LINCOM Studies in Pragmatics 10. Ca. 170 pp. USD 48 / DM 92 / � 29.

    New: A Students' and course discount of 40% is offered to the above title.

    Ordering information for individuals: Please give us your creditcard no. / expiry date. Prices in this information include shipment worldwide by airmail. A standing order for this series is available with special discounts offered to individual subscribers.

    Free copies of LINCOM'S newsflashes 24 & 25 are now available from

    LINCOM EUROPA, Freibadstr. 3, D-81543 Muenchen, Germany; FAX +49 89 62269404;

    Message 2: Caucasian Linguistics: The Udi Gospels by W. Schulze

    Date: Fri, 22 Jun 2001 13:21:28 +0200
    From: LINCOM EUROPA <>
    Subject: Caucasian Linguistics: The Udi Gospels by W. Schulze

    Wolfgang Schulze The Udi Gospels - Annotated Text, Etymological Index, Lemmatized Concordance Ludwig-Maximilian Universitaet Muenchen

    More than hundred years ago [108 years ago, to be exact], the Udi pope Semjon Bezhanov (assisted by his brother Mikhail Bezhanov) undertook the Sisyphean task to translate the most relevant parts of the New Testament, namely the four Gospels, into Udi. Udi represents a both typologically and genetically speaking highly divergent autochthonous Southeast Caucasian (Lezgian) language that is characterized by e.g. massive split structures in its (in parts ergative) relational behavior (S-splits, A-splits, O-split), an 'accusative' personal agreement pattern which is co-paradigmatized with focal strategies, floating agreement clitics, complexe verbal incorporation mechanisms, clausal subordination that goes along with integrating techniques such as converbs and participle Till 1989, Udi has been sppoken in three villages [Nidzh and Vartashen] in Northern Azerbaidzhan and (since 1922) in Oktomberi (Eastern Georgia) [by roughly 5000 people]. It is not known why the translators produced the Udi Gospels - we can only speculate that their major objectives were to have at hands a version of the Gospels that Semjon Bezhanov could use during his religious services. The Udi people [Armenian and Georgian Christians by religion] were by that times (in parts) familiar with some kind of local Armenian, but this rudimentary knowledge did not allow the use of the Armenian version of the Gospels in religious ceremonies etc. [the same holds for any Georgian version]. Additionally, the Bezhanovs were perhaps motivated by [by that time] current ethnocentric, not to say nationalistic intellectual paradigms. The long-standing quarrels with the surrounding Islamic cultural traditions and Islamic rulership obviously helped to develop some kind of Udi 'national consciousness' which again was 'supported' by both the Czarist administration and the religious centers in Tbilisi and Erevan. Another motivation seems to stem from an obvious 'religious-intellectual' tradition especially in Vartashen: Since probably 1800, young Udis had been regularly trained in Tbilisi and Erevan to become (local) teachers or priests [popes]. This tradition was handed over from generation to generation, as can be seen from the Bezhanov family which knew a number of teachers and priests already prior to the authors of the Udi Gospels. The Bezhanov manuscript of the Udi Gospels - which itself seems to be lost - came to the printhouse in Tbilisi in 1898 and was published as volume XXX of the famous series Sbornik Materialov dlja Opisanija Mestnostej i Plemen Kavkaza (SMOMPK) in 1902. Yet, the existence of the Udi Gospels as a tool for the religious service in Vartashen and Nidzh had never been acknowledged among the Udis. Also, the linguistic treatment of Udi rarely made reference to this book [except for local researchers such as Vladimir Panchvidze and Evgeni Dzheiranishvili]. This may have been due to the fact that the Udi Gospels circulated among scientists in a very small number of copies only. Thanks to photocopying facilities, this aspect can be neglected today. However, it is rather amazing that those [Western] researchers who have dealt with the linguistics of Udi hardly ever used the Gospels as a source for their analyses.The need for larger text corpora of unwritten languages becomes obvious if we look at the younger linguistic tradition of grammatical 'in-depth-studies'. It has come clear that generalizations on linguistic categories taken from secondary sources are not very reliable. Take as an example the standard claim that Udi is an ergative language (whatever this in fact means): this claim which is exploited in both areal linguistics and language typology, however, becomes more than doubtful if we have a closer look at the language. These doubts emerge not only from more general hypotheses related to Relational and/or Cognitive Typology, but also from the architecture of the Udi grammar together with its functional dimensions. If we have a closer look at the grammar of Udi based on extensive work with texts, the picture of Udi as e.g. an 'ergative language' changes dramatically. But this picture shows up only if we use texts as the starting point of our linguistic analysis, not simply second-hand traded illustrative phrases or paradigms. The present reediting of the Udi Gospels aims at researchers who want to get into the linguistics of Udi [whatever their aims may be] using a larger [and structurally speaking consistent] text corpus. Additionally, the text can serve as a tool for those who are interested in the comparative linguistics of the Southeast Caucasian or Lezgian languages especially with respect to the lexicon. The Gospels cover nearly 1800 lexical entries which document a major part of the Udi lexicon (though necessarily defined and confined by the contents of the Gospels). It can likewisse provide typological research with massive data from a typologically salient language. In order to serve its purposes, the present book is organized in the following way: Chapter 2 is an introduction into both the historical setting that underlies the production of the text and a (rather brief) survey of the structure of the Udi gospels. Section 3 gives the text of the Gospels with grammatical, lexical, and stylistic notes in reference to the textual sources. In section 4, the reader will find a comprehensive (though rather condensed) overview of the grammatical (paradigmatic) architecture of Udi that helps the reader to analyze all grammatical elements in the text. Section 5 offers an index of all lexical forms to be found in the Gospels (names etc. excluded) that can be used both as a simple Udi-English index and as an etymological index of the Udi language. This index is unique in that for the first time the lexicon of an individual East Caucasian language is approached from a diachronic perspective. It can be regarded as a preliminary step towardsan etymological dictionary of Udi (which would - as far as data areavailable - comprise twice the size of the present index). Section 6 contains a lemmatized concordance which helps the reader to retrieve the lemma of a given form in the Gospels or to check a given word form in terms a 'keyword in context concordance'. Finally, an English-Udi indexis given in section 7.

    The etymological index can be used without any reference to the text. If the reader starts with the text, (s)he is advised to first look up a given word form in the concordance to see its lemma form and than to check the lemma in the etymological index. The morphological analysis should be done with the help of the paradigms listed in section 4 - which- I have to stress it - do not replace the reference to standard grammatical treatments of Udi such as Schiefner 1863, Dirr 1904, Panchvidze1971, Dzheiranishvili 1974, Gukasjan 1974, Schulze 1982, Schulze(-Fuerhoff)1994, and Schulze 2001a.


    Foreword v Abbreviations vii Contents ix 1. Introduction 1 2. Udi and the Udi Gospels 3 2.1 Introduction 3 2.2 The Udi language: areal and historical aspects 3 2.3 The historical background of Udi linguistics 9 2.4 Some remarks on the linguistics of the Gospels 13 2.5 Concluding remarks 28 3. The Udi Gospels 31 3.1 Introduction 33 3.2 Mat'feiaxo ive'l daft'ar 35 3.3 Mark'nuxo ive'l daft'ar 89 3.4 Luk'inaxo ive'l daft'ar 125 3.5 Ioannaxo ive'l daft'at 185 4. The paradigmatic structure of Udi 233 5. Etymological Index 243 5.1 Introduction 243 5.2 Index 245 6. Lemmatized Concordance 339 6.1 Introduction 339 6.2 Concordance 341 7. English-Udi Index 439 8. References 457

    ISBN 3 89586 246 0. Languages of the World/Text Library 05. Ca. 450 pp. USD 78 / DM 148 / � 52.

    New: A Students' and course discount of 40% is offered to the above title.

    Ordering information for individuals: Please give us your creditcard no. / expiry date. Prices in this information include shipment worldwide by airmail. A standing order for this series is available with special discounts offered to individual subscribers.

    Free copies of LINCOM'S newsflashes 24 & 25 are now available from

    LINCOM EUROPA, Freibadstr. 3, D-81543 Muenchen, Germany; FAX +49 89 62269404;



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    Tuesday, April 24, 2001


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