LINGUIST List 23.2292
Sun May 13 2012
Review: Cog. Science; Semantics: Maienborn et al. (2011)
Editor for this issue: Joseph Salmons
Sylvia Reed <slreed
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EDITORS: Maienborn, Claudia, Klaus von Heusinger & Paul H. PortnerTITLE: SemanticsSUBTITLE: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning, Volume 1SERIES TITLE: Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science / [HSK] 33/1PUBLISHER: De Gruyter MoutonYEAR: 2011
Sylvia L. Reed, Department of Linguistics, University of Arizona
SUMMARY''Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning, Volume 1'' isthe first volume of a three-volume handbook of semantics. This volume containsthe following sections: I. Foundations of semantics, II. History of semantics,III. Methods in semantic research, IV. Lexical semantics, V. Ambiguity andvagueness, VI. Cognitively oriented approaches to semantics, VII. Theories ofsentence semantics, and VIII. Theories of discourse semantics. The stated goalsare to ''discuss the foundations and methodology of semantics,'' ''introduceimportant theoretical frameworks and theoretical issues,'' ''cover a wide varietyof specific topics and phenomena of natural language meaning,'' and ''explore therelationship between semantics and other fields, both within linguistics andoutside'' (vii).
Seven chapters on the foundations of semantics comprise the first section:''Meaning in linguistics'' (chapter 1, Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger, andPaul Portner), ''Meaning, intentionality and communication'' (chapter 2, PierreJacob), ''(Frege on) Sense and reference'' (chapter 3, Mark Textor), ''Reference:Foundational issues'' (chapter 4, Barbara Abbott), ''Meaning in Language Use''(chapter 5, Georgia Green), ''Compositionality'' (chapter 6, Peter Pagin and DagWesterståhl), and ''Lexical decomposition: Foundational Issues'' (chapter 7,Stefan Engelberg).
Maienborn, von Heusinger, and Portner introduce the main concepts, methods, andgoals of modern semantics by discussing three central issues: truth conditions,compositionality, and context and discourse. They distinguish linguisticsemantics from other approaches to meaning, and show how these features areinstantiated in the three central issues they address. Jacob examines earlycontributions to questions of communication and pragmatics. He addresses thelasting effect of Brentano (1874), and mentions several later approaches tointentionality. He also discusses early theories of speech acts/pragmatics, andexamines Grice's (1957 and forward) movement towards an inferential model ofcommunication and a discussion of truth-conditional pragmatics. Textor takes thereader through Frege's motivation for the distinction between sense andreference, and the various approaches in Frege's works. He also discusses whatthis distinction means for predicates and sentences, and traces the path fromFrege's ideas to significant contributions in modern semantics. Abbot takes intoconsideration several issues central to the theory of reference. She reviewsdirect reference theory and its failures, Frege's (1892) concepts of sense andreference, and Russell's (1905) theory of definite descriptions. She alsoconsiders objections to Russell's theory of definite descriptions, Kaplan's(1989) theory of demonstratives and indexicals, and Kripke's (1972) return toMill's nondescriptional theory of proper names. Green moves to discuss the useof language, reviewing some major concepts in foundational pragmatics:Bar-Hillel's (1954) work on indexicals and Grice (1957, 1975). She thendiscusses some implications of Grice's theory for our understanding of wordmeaning, and closes with work on disambiguation and on the modeling of pragmaticinformation. Pagin and Westerståhl first give historical background for theprinciple of compositionality, then present an algebra for composition in syntaxand semantics. They describe arguments for and against compositionality innatural language, and lastly consider possible problems for compositionality andpropose some solutions. Engelberg covers the basic motivations behinddecomposition, and then reviews the major phenomena that decomposition is saidto explain. He gives a brief history of interest in and study of decomposition,followed by a collection of areas of empirical weakness. Finally, he looks atseveral major theoretical issues surrounding decomposition.
The next section contains four chapters on the history of semantics: ''Meaning inpre-19th century thought'' (chapter 8, Stephan Meier-Oeser), ''The emergence oflinguistic semantics in the 19th and early 20th century'' (chapter 9, BrigitteNerlich), ''The influence of logic on semantics'' (chapter 10, Albert Newen andBernhard Schröder), and ''Formal semantics and representationalism'' (chapter 11,Ruth Kempson). Meier-Oeser considers theories of meaning in the westerntradition from antiquity to the 19th century, including the contributions ofPlato, Aristotle, the Stoics, Augustinus, Boethius, Abelard, Bacon, Hobbes, thePort-Royal Grammarians, Locke, Leibniz, and Condillac. He also discusses severalmajor concepts of meaning and how they have been approached, including the'significatio', the proposition, suppositions, speculative grammar,comprehension vs. extension, and symbolic knowledge. Nerlich traces thebeginnings of linguistic semantics from the 19th through the early 20th century.She gives a picture of the emergence of the study of semantics from its roots inGermany, France, and Great Britain. She discusses, in turn, the traditions ofsemantics in each: in Germany especially Reisig, Steinthal, and Paul; in FranceBréal, Littré, and Darmesteter; and in Britain Locke, Trench, Tooke, Stewart,and Smart. Newen and Schröder examine the importance of logic to the developmentof modern linguistic semantics, and of semantics to the tools of logic. Theirdiscussion includes descriptions of the main contributions of pre-FregeansAristotle, Leibniz, and Abelard; of Frege's predicate logic, Russell's work ontypes and definite descriptions, Carnap's ideas about possible worlds, andQuine's contributions to our understanding of propositional attitudes. They thendiscuss type theory, generalized quantifiers, intensions and types, and anaphoraand Dynamic Predicate Logic. Kempson reviews the development of semantics duringand after the shift to a concern for formally characterizing the grammars ofnatural language. She surveys the changing goals and understandings ofrepresentationalist accounts. She introduces some concepts of logic that formalsemantics was built upon. She describes the responses to the issues of contextdependence presented by dynamic semantics, then the contributions of prooftheory to semanticists' efforts. Finally she presents some tools from DynamicSyntax and shows how they may be used to represent and understand meaningbuilding in language.
The next section, ''Methods in semantic research,'' includes four chapters:''Varieties of semantic evidence'' (chapter 12, Manfred Krifka), ''Methods incross-linguistic semantics (chapter 13, Lisa Matthewson), ''Formal methods insemantics'' (chapter 14, Alice G.B. ter Meulen, and ''The application ofexperimental methods in semantics'' (chapter 15, Oliver Bott, Sam Featherston,Janina Radó, and Britta Stolterfoht). Krifka treats the types of evidencesemanticists have for meanings in language -- how meaning is reflected inobservable ways. Krifka first discusses a few ideas of (whether and) how we knowthat meaning exists, and how we can access and discuss it. He explorestechniques for eliciting and dealing with meaning in semantic fieldwork (widelyconstrued), then reviews some major behavioral effects found in semanticprocessing, and a few known effects on physiology brought out by suchprocessing. Finally, he briefly discusses methods that use corpora.Matthewsontakes up studying semantics cross-linguistically, with emphasis on discoveringsemantic universals and parameters. She discusses major strategies for obtainingsemantic data. Next she considers what it means to be a semantic universal fortypologists and semanticists, and the examines the concept of abstractness inuniversals. Then she looks at how to find semantic universals and surveys someproposed universals. She concludes with discussion of (restrictions on)variation in cross-linguistic semantics. Ter Meulen surveys ways in which formalmethods have been used to understand meaning in natural language. She discussesfirst order logic, proofs and the components of formal systems, semantic modelsand validity, and possibilities for combining proof-theoretic andmodel-theoretic analyses. She then looks at some examples of formal methods thathave been applied to the study of linguistic semantics, followed by examples ofsemantic methods developed for first order logic. Bott, Featherston, Radó, andStolterfoht argue that experimental methods and evidence gathered from them caninform our understanding of meaning and our theories about it. The authors firstdiscuss the major ''stumbling blocks'' to experimental work in semantics, andillustrate several experimental methods with questions about quantifier scope.They conclude that semantics can benefit greatly from further experimental evidence.
The next section contains seven chapters focusing on lexical semantics:''Semantic features and primes'' (chapter 16, Manfred Bierwisch), ''Frameworks oflexical decomposition of verbs'' (chapter 17, Stefan Engelberg), ''Thematic roles''(chapter 18, Anthony R. Davis), ''Lexical Conceptual Structure'' (chapter 19, BethLevin and Malka Rappaport Hovav), ''Idioms and collocations'' (chapter 20,Christiane Fellbaum), ''Sense relations'' (chapter 21, Ronnie Cann), and ''Dualoppositions in lexical meaning'' (chapter 22, Sebastian Löbner). Bierwisch'schapter on semantic features and primes distinguishes three types of primes. Hebegins with background assumptions behind the concepts, then discusses possibleforms for semantic features. He discusses the types that we must have forprimitives, and discusses the interpretation and interpretability of variouskinds of features. Engelberg traces the development of theories of lexicaldecomposition through various frameworks, considering their origins, basicideas, explanatory power, and impact. He reviews Generative Semantics, Dowty'stheory of Montague Semantics (Dowty 1972) and Jackendoff's (1983) 'ConceptualSemantics'. Then he looks at Lexical Conceptual Structure decompositions beforeturning to a discussion of the Event Structure Theory of Pustejovsky (1988),Two-level-Semantics (the work of Bierwisch, Lang, and Wunderlich), and NaturalSemantic Metalanguage (Wierzbicka and Goddard). Finally he turns to Hale &Keyser's (1993) Lexical Relational Structures, and lastly Distributed Morphology(Halle & Marantz 1993). Davis' chapter on thematic roles considers the waythematic roles have been defined in model-theoretic semantics. He discusses theidea of 'thematic role uniqueness' and the debate about how broad orfine-grained thematic roles should be. He also reviews inventories andhierarchies proposed for thematic roles, presents examples of analyses usingstructures or features, and considers approaches to argument realization. Levinand Rappaport Hovav discuss Lexical Conceptual Structure, describing how LCSscame into linguistic theory and the components of LCSs. They examine the issueof deciding on semantic primitives, and illustrate arguments for particular(sets of) primitives. They also discuss more recent lines of research on eventstructure that assume subevents in decompositions of predicates. Fellbaumdiscusses several issues surrounding idioms and collocations, bringing in corpusdata from English and German. She draws a distinction between 'collocation','collocations', and 'idioms', and then discusses various properties of idioms.Then she briefly discusses idioms as constructions, how idioms changediachronically, and what we have learned about idioms through psycholinguisticresearch. Cann examines the major sense relations and their connections totheories of word meaning. He distinguishes between paradigmatic relations andsyntagmatic relations, and defines and discusses hyponomy, synonymy, antonymy,and meronymy. Then he looks at syntagmatic relations, found in idioms andgrammatical but nonsensical sentences, and considers how these relations lead tobetter understanding of word meaning. He concludes that while sense relationsare ''good descriptive devices'' (477), their relation to word meaning is far fromclear. Löbner considers various two-way oppositions found in studies of lexicalmeaning, introducing ''duality groups'' or ''squares'' and showing that theirmembers are lexicalized very asymmetrically. He then argues that this asymmetrycan be understood if we take these squares to be examples of 'phase quantification'.
The next section addresses questions of ambiguity and vagueness with ''Ambiguityand vagueness: An overview'' (chapter 23, Christopher Kennedy), ''Semanticunderspecification'' (chapter 24, Markus Egg), ''Mismatches and coercion'' (chapter25, Henriëtte de Swart), and ''Metaphors and metonymies'' (chapter 26, AndreaTyler and Hiroshi Takahashi). Kennedy introduces the topics of the section,making clear that ambiguity and vagueness are distinct empirically and in howthey can be analyzed. He reviews varieties of and tests for ambiguity, anddiscusses several famous interactions between ambiguity and semantic theory. Hethen considers some challenges for our understanding of vagueness and describesfour major approaches to vagueness. Egg reviews the types of ambiguity that aretreatable with an underspecification analysis, and looks at several types offormal approaches to semantic underspecification. He considers severalmotivations for formalisms that use semantic underspecification, forunderspecification and the syntax-semantics interface, and for the processing ofunderspecified representations in computational linguistics andpsycholinguistics. De Swart examines type mismatches; of the three majorexplanations for how they are resolved (type raising, type shifting, and typecoercion), she focuses on type coercion. After introducing enriched typetheories, she discusses how type coercion works and what we know aboutcomprehension type coercion. Then she looks at a particular set of instances ofcoercion involving aspect, and analyzes them in Discourse Representation Theory(DRT). Tyler and Takahashi close the section with a look at metaphor andmetonymy. They first discuss traditional approaches to metaphor and figurativelanguage, then present several pragmatic accounts of metaphor, beginning withGrice's take on the topics (1969/1989, 1975). They examine relevance-theoreticaccounts, and psycholinguistic, cognitive, and conceptual accounts of metaphorand figurative language. The authors also briefly consider metonymy on its own,contrasting the traditional take with approaches from cognitive semantics thatestablish a separate analysis for it.
Section VI has six chapters on cognitively oriented approaches to semantics:''Cognitive semantics: An overview'' (chapter 27, Leonard Talmy), ''Prototypetheory'' (chapter 28, John R. Taylor), ''Frame Semantics'' (chapter 29, Jean MarkGawron), ''Conceptual Semantics'' (chapter 30, Ray Jackendoff), ''Two-levelSemantics: Semantic Form and Conceptual Structure'' (chapter 31, Ewald Lang andClaudia Maienborn), and ''Word meaning and world knowledge'' (chapter 32, Jerry R.Hobbs). Talmy introduces cognitive semantics by first contrasting the generalapproach of cognitive linguistics with formal/generative and psychologicalapproaches. He examines the semantics of grammar, and looks at three ''schematicsystems'' or conceptual structures made up of closed-class conceptual categories.He then presents three 'conceptual organizations' and discusses interactionsamong semantic structures. Taylor reviews prototype theory, discussing prototypeeffects found in linguistic and psychological research. He considers levels ofcategorization and the 'basic level', as well as categories in culturalcontexts, prototypes vs. categories, and objections to prototypes. He brieflydiscusses how words relate to the things they describe, and gives an example ofa place where prototype theory has been advantageous: the study of polysemy.Gawron reviews Frame Semantics, considering two properties of word meanings thatmake it difficult to systematically account for word meanings. Rather thanfocusing on one part of these meanings like many generative accounts, FrameSemantics (Fillmore 1975) considers linguistic meaning from the perspective ofunderstanding a text. Gawron reviews its motivations and theoretical tools, andcompares frames to relations and lexical fields. He works through word sensesand their ability to evoke more than one frame, and concludes with lexicographyand the use of frames in understanding discourse. Jackendoff discusses theframework of Conceptual Semantics ((Jackendoff 1983), Pinker (1989)). He citestwo 'theoretical commitments' of Conceptual Semantics and reviews theframework's commitment to mentalism, then compares it briefly to otherframeworks. He introduces the concepts of Conceptual Structure and SpatialStructure. and discusses issues of compositionality and Conceptual Semantics'recent version, 'Enriched Composition'. Lang and Maienborn's chapter focuses on'Two-level Semantics', which makes use of two levels of representation: theSemantic Form (SF) and the Conceptual Structure (CS). The authors give Two-levelSemantics' basic assumptions and discuss some of the aims and limitations of theframework, demonstrating how it deals with polysemy, compositionality, andinferences in spatial cognition. The section closes with Hobb on word meaningand world knowledge in relation to cognitive semantics. Hobb's approach is toformalize conceptual frameworks and then use these formalizations to definewords. He presents several core 'abstract theories' and examines how to linkword meaning to these theories. He also considers the senses of words found intwo sources, WordNet and FrameNet.
Section VII examines three theories of sentence semantics in ''Model-theoreticsemantics'' (chapter 33, Thomas Ede Zimmerman), ''Event semantics'' (chapter 34,Claudia Maienborn), and ''Situation semantics and the ontology of naturallanguage'' (chapter 35, Jonathan Ginzburg). Zimmerman provides an overview ofmodel-theoretic semantics. He discusses truth-conditional semantics forbackground and motivation before turning to possible worlds semantics. Heconsiders the basics of Logical Space or possible worlds (extensions,characteristic functions, the concepts of vastness and detail, and intensions).He then discusses model-theoretic semantics from a more specificallymathematical/set-theoretic perspective, and makes a few notes about variants ofmodel-theoretic semantics. Maienborn reviews major topics in event semantics,from Davidson (1967) to Neo-Davidsonianism to Kratzer (1995). She firstdiscusses the basic ideas of and motivations behind Davidson's account, as wellas the ontological status of events. Then she turns to the 'Neo-Davidsonianparadigm' and examines the possibility of a decompositional approach to eventsemantics, before turning the stage-level/individual-level distinction and thestatus of states in event semantics. Ginzburg takes up Situation Semantics,beginning with Barwise & Perry (1983) and what it means to have asituation-based ontology. He then turns to empirical motivations for bringingsituations into semantic theory before looking at the introduction ofpropositions into situation semantics. He considers some recent work attemptingto extend the approach to account for a larger set of data than the originalproposals, and other work that aims to integrate type-theoretical notions, usingtools from Type Theory with Records (TTR).
The final section examines four theories of discourse semantics in ''Situationsemantics: From indexicality to metacommunicative interaction'' (chapter 36,Jonathan Ginzburg), ''Discourse Representation Theory'' (chapter 37, Hans Camp andUwe Reyle), ''Dynamic semantics'' (chapter 38, Paul Dekker), and ''Rhetoricalrelations'' (chapter 39, Henk Zeevat). Ginzburg begins with a second contributionabout Situation Semantics, this time focusing on interpretation of the utterancerather than of the sentence. He focuses on Barwise and Perry's work, laying outtheir desiderata for semantics, and discusses empirical data from spokenlanguage that suggest the benefits of a semantics focused on utterances anddialogue as a whole. He also reviews three frameworks used in SituationSemantics: Discourse Representation Theory (DRT), PTT, and KoS. Kamp and Reylereview DRT. They discuss its origins in the analysis of tense in French, andwork through a problem that was part of DRT's empirical motivation. They showhow Discourse Representation Structures (DRSs) are built and how they work, thendescribe issues surrounding presupposition and binding. They also discuss thestatus of the lexicon in the theory, direct reference, and several extensionsand implementations of DRT. Dekker introduces dynamic semantics, its theoreticalbackground and empirical motivations, then briefly looks at DRT. He describesthe workings of Dynamic Predicate Logic (Groenendijk & Stokhof 1991) andconsiders its approaches to binding and truth and entailment. He then reviewsthree subject areas that are typical in dynamic approaches. Last is Zeevat'schapter on rhetorical relations, including Rhetorical Structure Theory, theLinguistic Discourse Model, Interpretation by Abduction, and StructuredDiscourse Representation Theory. He looks at why we should study rhetoricalrelations in the first place, which rhetorical relations we should assume, andwhat rhetorical relations relate. He then looks at several applications ofrhetorical relations, closing with a discussion of directions for the study ofrhetorical relations.
EVALUATIONThis handbook is an excellent, broad collection of new papers on the history andcurrent state of semantics. The editors lay out several overall goals in thepreface. First, they aim to ''discuss the foundations and methodology ofsemantics'' (vii). This they certainly do, with three sections (15 chapters) onthe foundations, history, and methods of semantics. Their next goal is to''introduce important theoretical frameworks and theoretical issues'' (vii). Thisgoal is clearly met in Volume 1, as a number of frameworks and theories, as wellas major theoretical issues, are addressed. For many theories and frameworksthat are not explicitly discussed, authors provide references to major works inthe area. The editors also aim to ''cover a wide variety of specific topics andphenomena of natural language meaning'' (vii). Judging from the listed contentsof Volume 2, this goal will be addressed primarily there. However, several majorphenomena are also addressed in this volume. Finally, the editors aim to''explore the relationship between semantics and other fields, both withinlinguistics and outside'' (vii). This will certainly be addressed in Volume 3,but it is also accomplished to some extent here, as a number of authorsreference important work in related fields.
This volume would be a valuable resource for several audiences. Especiallycombined with its sister volumes, it would be particularly useful as a referencefor both emerging and established semanticists, as it covers many essentialtopics all in one place, and incorporates various theoretical orientations,frameworks, etc. The authors assume that their readers have some knowledge oflinguistics and meaning, but each chapter stands on its own in terms ofproviding the necessary background and details of the topic and theoreticalapproach. The volume as a whole has great breadth of coverage, but individualchapters also display significant depth and insight into their focused topics.Because of this, the volume would be excellent for a researcher to have on handfor those times when she is beginning a new direction of research and is insearch of more literature on the topic, or needs to review a topic, framework,or theory she does not usually investigate. The volume would also be valuablefor instructors of semantics-related material, either within linguistics or in arelated field such as philosophy or cognitive science.
The volume is intuitively and helpfully organized. Each chapter begins with alist of contents and an abstract. Chapters are divided into sections dependingon subject matter, and most are clearly and helpfully organized. Many chaptersalso reference other works in the same volume or one of the other two volumes.The volume as a whole is fairly coherent. Chapters vary as to whether they havea concluding section, but this is generally not an issue since each chapterbegins with an abstract. The references sections at the end of each chapter arewell populated and useful. The volume's extensive coverage is a positive trait,but the lack of an index makes it less useful for individuals pursuing aparticular phenomenon or subtopic. This does not detract greatly from theusefulness of the volume, however.
The breadth of content is impressive. A number of major frameworks and theoriesare represented, and many others are well-referenced. The inclusion offoundational and historical chapters is appreciated, as this information isoften not readily available in concise form. It is also useful to have summariesof major theories in lexical, formal generative, cognitively-oriented, anddiscourse-oriented semantics brought together in one place; many chaptersmention related work in pragmatics. Several chapters helpfully raise questionsfor further research or point out areas that still need to be addressed. Severalbits of content are repeated across chapters, and numerous classic examples areseen multiple times. This is perhaps more or less positive depending on how thevolume is used. For example, if one is reading it all together, having the samebasic information about Frege and Montague in multiple places is not necessarilyhelpful. However, if a single chapter is referenced, it is good to have thisinformation wherever it is necessary. Likewise, the classic examples of themorning star and the evening star, or the ''ham sandwich'' at the restaurant, aregood to repeat if the reader will only be looking at one or two chapters thatuse the examples; however, it might be useful to include a bit more innovationin the examples (perhaps the new examples could be included after reference tothe classics).
One already useful area, the section on methods, might be expanded upon by thetime of the next edition. As more semantic research is done in field andexperimental situations, there will be even more to say about these topics.Another place for expansion would be the amount of cross-linguistic data, asthis is often a good starting point for expansion of research.
Another area for improvement is the notable number of typos: missing punctuationmarks, conspicuously misspelled words, and places where a needed word is missingaltogether. A few mistakes of this nature might be expected in nearly 1000pages, but they are numerous.
Overall, this is a fine collection of work combining past and presentperspectives on semantics and its intellectual neighbors, as well as suggestingnew lines of research. It would be a valuable addition to the library of anysemanticist or meaning theorist.
REFERENCESBar-Hillel, Yehoshua 1954. Indexical expressions. Mind 63, 359-379.
Barwise, Jon & John Perry 1983. Situations and Attitudes. Cambridge, MA: The MITPress.
Brentano, Frantz 1874/1911/1973. Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint.London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Davidson, Donald 1967. The logical form of action sentences. In: N. Rescher(ed.). Essays in Honor of Carl G. Hempel. Dordrecht: Reidel, 216-234. Reprintedin: D. Davidson (ed.). Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Clarendon Press,1980, 163-180.
Dowty, David R. 1972. Studies in the Logic of Verb Aspect and Time Reference inEnglish. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Texas, Austin.
Fillmore, Charles J. 1975. An alternative to checklist theories of meaning. In:C. Cogen et al. (eds.). Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the BerkeleyLinguistics Society. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society, 123-131.
Frege, Gottlob 1892. Über Sinn und Bedeutung. Zeitschrift für Philosophie undphilosophische Kritik, 25-50. English Translation in: P. Geach & M. Black(eds.). Translations from the Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege. Oxford:Blackwell, 1980, 56-78.
Grice, H. Paul 1957. Meaning. Philosophical Review 66, 377-388.
Grice, H. Paul 1969. Utterer's meaning and intentions. Philosophical Review 78,147-177. Reprinted in: H.P. Grice. Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press, 1989, 86-116.
Grice, H. Paul 1975. Logic and conversation. In: P. Cole & J.L. Morgan (eds.).Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts. New York: Academic Press, 41-58.
Groenendijk, Jeroen & Martin Stokhof 1991. Dynamic Predicate Logic. Linguistics& Philosophy 14, 39-100.
Hale, Ken & Samuel Jay Keyser 1993. On argument structure and the syntacticexpression of lexical relations.
Halle, Morris & Alec Marantz 1993. Distributed Morphology and the pieces ofinflection. In: K. Hale & S.J. Keyser (eds.). The View from Building 20. Essaysin Honor of Sylvain Bromberger. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 111-176.
Jackendoff, Ray 1983. Semantics and Cognition. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Kaplan, David 1989. Demonstratives: An essay on the semantics, logic,metaphysics, and epistemology of demonstratives and other indexicals. In: J.Almog, J. Perry & H. Wettstein (eds.). Themes from Kaplan. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press, 481-563.
Krazter, Angelika 1995. Stage-level and individual-level predicates. In: G.N.Carlson & F.J. Peletier (eds.). The Generic Book. Chicago, IL: The University ofChicago Press, 125-175.
Kripke, Saul 1979. A puzzle about belief. In: A. Margalit (ed.). Meaning andUse. Dordrecht: Reidel, 139-183.
Pinker, Stephen 1989. Learnability and Cognition. The Acquisition of ArgumentStructure. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Pustejovsky, James 1988. The geometry of events. In: C. Tenny (ed.). Studies inGenerative Approaches to Aspect. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 19-39.
Russell, Bertrand 1905. On denoting. Mind 14, 479-493.
ABOUT THE REVIEWERSylvia Reed recently completed her Ph.D. in linguistics at the Universityof Arizona. Her dissertation focuses on the semantics of grammaticalaspect, drawing data primarily from Scottish Gaelic. Her main researchinterests lie in the semantics and morphosyntax of aspect, tense, mood, andmodality; language description and documentation; and theoretical andexperimental morphology.
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