LINGUIST List 23.2706

Tue Jun 12 2012

Review: Applied Linguistics; Sociolinguistics: Simpson (2011)

Editor for this issue: Rajiv Rao <rajivlinguistlist.org>



Date: 12-Jun-2012
From: Taiwo Abioye <taye4laideyahoo.com>
Subject: The Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics
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EDITOR: James SimpsonTITLE: The Routledge Handbook of Applied LinguisticsSERIES TITLE: Routledge Handbooks in Applied LinguisticsPUBLISHER: Routledge (Taylor and Francis)YEAR: 2011

Taiwo Abioye (PhD), Department of Languages, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria.

SUMMARY

This is a handbook that provides comprehensive overviews of key topics inapplied linguistics. It is a compilation of articles by scholars in the field,and thus, it serves as a resource text for both advanced level, undergraduateand postgraduate students. The handbook comprises forty-seven articles, orchapters, and is divided into five parts. At the end of each chapter, theauthors present a list of related topics and selected references for furtherreadings related to each chapter. Furthermore, a historical overview of almostall the topics is presented.

In Chapter 1, ‘Language Policy and Planning’, Lionel Wee focuses on how languagepolicy and planning practitioners should engage policy makers and the generalpublic in addressing language challenges in a multilingual/multiculturalsociety, as opposed to the earlier notion in which linguists were consideredfinal initiators of appropriate language policy and planning (LPP) initiatives.He explores the evolution of LPP as an academic discipline via a historicaloverview and goes further to examine three main challenges of LPP, paramountamong which is the issue of global migration. Probable solutions are profferedand predictions are made about what the future holds for LPP.

In Chapter 2, entitled ‘Business Communication’, Vijay Bhatia and Aditi Bhatiahighlight the interdisciplinary nature of business communication. The writersbring to the forefront the notion that English for business purposes issynonymous with ‘Business Communication’, which is subsumed under English forspecific purposes. The authors examine three major areas which have beenintegrated into Business Communication vis-à-vis English for specific purposes-- register or genre analysis and professional communication studies -- all ofwhich are shown to be relevant to the study of Business Communication.

In Chapter 3, ‘Translation and Interpreting’, Mona Baker and Luis Pérez-Gonzálezinvestigate the common interests of translation scholars and applied linguists.The chapter examines their roles in a globalized world vis-à-vis translation andinterpreting. The authors provide a historical overview of the study oftranslation and go on to highlight some relevant research issues in translationand interpreting through some reviews of contemporary literature in the field.Drawing from activities in different contexts, the writers examine the tensionbetween translators and interpreters, and conclude by projecting the impactwhich the interface between globalization and translation will have on languageconceptualization.

In Chapter 4, Thierry Fontenelle, focuses on ‘Lexicography’, an area that dealswith the compilation of dictionaries and the description of the lexicon oflanguages. A historical overview on the subject identifies two types oflexicography vis-à-vis monolingual and bilingual lexicography. Also, threemodels of definitions are explored. The impact of the “corpus revolution” ishighlighted; this concept gives insight on how lexicographers can compiledictionary entries based on evidence from linguistic corpora.

In Chapter 5, ‘The Media’, Anne O’Keeffe highlights dominant research methods inthe study of spoken language. Conversation analysis is proffered as the mostdependable in the study of media language. The role of corpus linguistics isalso highlighted as a strategy of data collection. The chapter concludes with anexploration of the pros and cons in the practice of doing either written orspoken media discourse studies.

In Chapter 6, ‘Institutional Discourse’, Celia Roberts discusses the notion ofinstitutional discourse in terms of its origin, theories used in analyzing thisnotion, as well as the major themes contained within it. Institutionaldiscourse, as presented here, enacts the issue of power and ideology in workpractices in a globalized society.

In Chapter 7, ‘Medical Communication’, Sarah Collins, Sarah Peters and Ian Wattfocus on the doctor-patient relationship and its role in providing appropriatetherapy, while paying special attention to research methods, which leads to areview of current issues in the field, such as cultural and linguisticdiversity. Also, a section on medical education is included, and finally, thechapter ends with a projection into the future of medical communication.

In Chapter 8, ‘Clinical Linguistics’, Michael Perkins and Sara Howard explore awide range of methodological approaches in clinical linguistics that are usefulin the analysis, diagnosis, assessment and treatment of the linguistic andphonetic characteristics of communication disorders. Two factors are identifiedas being responsible for communication disorders: the underlying languagedeficit within the individual (i.e. underlying cause); and societal /behavioraleffects on the individual. Also, different research methods in clinicallinguistics are examined.

In Chapter 9, ‘Language and Aging’, Kees de Bot and Nienke van der Hoeven focuson the psycholinguistic approach to aging and cognitive processing throughsocial/sociolinguistic input, with an emphasis on bilingualism. A brief historyof language and aging is undertaken, leading to a discussion of some currentissues in the field. Also, a projection into the future of the field isundertaken, resulting in the emergence of new debates.

Chapter 10 is where Frances Rock, in ‘Forensic Linguistics’, focuses on therelevance of language to the legal system, the way scholars perceive the term‘forensic linguistics’, and the methodologies used by researchers in makingcogent contributions to the legal system.

In Chapter 11, ‘Key Concepts in Language Learning and Language Education’, DianeLarsen-Freeman uses a question-posing approach to trace major developments andidentify key concepts in the field of language learning and language education.She also delves into various theories of language and their effects on languagelearning and education. Some non-linguistic factors such as globalization,computer literacy and technology, which affect language, are also examined.

In Chapter 12, Lourdes Ortega, in ‘Second Language Acquisition’, investigatesthe development of acquiring an additional language at different stages in thelife of an individual. This is done using different studies useful in theteaching and learning of a foreign language, as well as factors that areimportant in acquiring a second language. Also, themes such as age,crosslinguistic influences, environment and cognition are considered as beingchallenging to SLA researchers. The chapter concludes by projecting the futureof research in SLA.

In Chapter 13, ‘Language Teaching Methodology’, Scott Thornbury sets out toevaluate the benefits of the shift from a preoccupation with method tomethodology with regard to language teaching. The author also brings to theforefront the stages of study and development from the concept of ‘method’ tothe emerging new trend of ‘methodology’.

In Chapter 14, Richard Kern, in ‘Technology and Language Learning’ explores theimpact of technology, especially computer technology, on language learning byidentifying some metaphors associated with technology and language learning.Instructional methodologies used via computer technology and categories ofinstructional/non-instructional application of language learning are also examined.

In Chapter 15, ‘Language Teacher Education’, Simon Borg, focuses on the studyand development of language teacher education (LTE). A critical, historical, andcurrent overview of the field is conducted via noting the global and variedscope of LTE. The chapter concludes by highlighting the limitations of existingresearch in the field.

In Chapter 16, ‘Bilingual Education’, Ingrid Gogolin presents critical researchon the concept of bilingualism and education. A historical review, whichhighlights different views of bilingualism and bilingual education, is carriedout. Also included are some educational models, with their objectives and goalshighlighted. The writer ends by critically reviewing other research in the field.

Chapter 17, ‘English for Academic Purposes’, is where Nigel Harwood and BojanaPetrić concerned themselves with a discussion of the needs and responsibilitiesof English for Academic Purposes (EAP) practitioners. The chapter systematicallytraces the historical development of EAP and also examines the sub-types of EAP,using a critical perspective in drawing distinctions between these types. Futuredirections for EAP research are also examined, bringing to forefront theinterdisciplinary nature of the field.

Chapter 18, ‘Language Testing’, by Barry O’Sullivan, takes a look at languagetesting and its place in recent times, while highlighting current issuesinherent in the field such as validation, assessment practice, localization andprofessionalization. O’Sullivan also highlights the relevance of social settingto language testing and the relationship between technology and languagetesting. Emerging debates in the field are also explored.

In Chapter 19, ‘Classroom Discourse’, Amy B. M. Tsui is concerned with bothlinguistic and non-linguistic elements of discourse that occur in the classroom.A historical overview highlights the motivation for this field of study as wellas different theories that have emanated from it. Different approaches to theanalysis of classroom discourse are examined and concluding remarks address thechallenges faced by this field of research.

In Chapter 20, ‘Language Socialization’, Agnes Weiyun He highlights the formaland functional aspects of language socialization for the acquisition andteaching of a language vis-à-vis the grammatical and communicative competence ofthe language user. The chapter also discusses growth in areas where language andculture intersect, considering language acquisition as a social, cultural andinteractional process. The author identifies two major challenges faced by thefield: the language learning trajectory is not always straightforward andpredictable; and the language socialization process is reciprocal. The authorsuggests probable solutions to these.

Chapter 21’s author, Claire Kramsch, in ‘Language and Culture’, adopts ahistorical perspective by tracing the history of the relationship betweenlanguage and culture as a discipline in applied linguistics. The fear thatculture might slowly lose its power to explain human behavior in amultilingual/multicultural society is also raised. The chapter concludes byexamining future trends in the intertwined relationship between language andculture, both in research and in practice.

The key notions of Chapter 22, ‘Identity’, by Bonny Norton, revolve aroundidentity in relation to language education. The writer traces the history ofresearch on identity and language from the 1970s to the present and mentionssome of the main theoretical influences on the research of identity, noting theshift from a psycholinguistic perspective to the sociolinguistic mode of secondlanguage acquisition. Furthermore, the writer examines issues concerninglanguage education in a broad sense, as well as how it specifically ties toidentity.

In Chapter 23, entitled ‘Gender’, Judith Baxter explores how people’s identitiesare constructed in gendered ways within localized communities. The writerprovides a historical overview to explore two areas of research -- ethnographicstudies and theories of ‘a women’s language’ -- that led to the emergence ofgender as a field of study. Current issues in the field, as well as futuretrends and new debates, are also discussed.

Chapter 24, ‘Ethnicity’, by Roxy Haris, focuses on the Anglo experience in thestudy and development of the concept of ethnicity in applied linguistics. Thechapter links these concepts within the framework of tradition, modernity andlate modernity, and demonstrates their interaction with one another. Experiencesregarding ethnicity in both the UK and USA are also explored.

Chapter 25, ‘Sign Language’, by Bencie Woll and Rachel Sutton-Spence, focuses onthe history and study of sign language as a minority language and itsrelationship with the majority languages that surround it. It explores signlanguage at all levels of linguistic analysis and also details a case studyacross the world that was conducted.

Chapter 26, ‘World Englishes’, by Andy Kirkpatrick and David Deterding, presentsthe models that represent the nature of Englishes around the world, along withvarious criticisms of these, particularly Kachru’s (1985) Three Circles Model.Various linguistic features (e.g. avoidance of dental fricatives, simplificationof final consonant clusters, syllable-based rhythm, absence of tense marking,idiosyncratic distinction between count and uncount nouns, invariant tags, andtopic prominence) are identified, for example, in African and SingaporeanEnglishes. The chapter also explicates the following: the stages of growth ofany variety of English in becoming an acceptable standard; the current role ofEnglish as a lingua franca (EFL) throughout the world; the validity of EFL as anarea of linguistic study; EFL’s relationship with other World Englishes; andlastly, the influence of new technology on the development of English varietiesaround the world. The crux of the article is that the use and recognition ofcurrent/universal linguistic features has subtly submerged the notion of errorsor mistakes in contemporary English usage. This simply signals a deliberatedenigration of Standard English as the norm or the inevitable co-existence ofStandard English and New Englishes. This might generate the question of astandard, or a variety of English to teach in both EFL/ESL classrooms, whichalso relates to challenges of international intelligibility and acceptance ofNew English varieties or dialects.

Chapter 27, ‘Linguistic Imperialism’, by Suresh Canagarajah and Selim Ben Said,focuses on an introduction to the studies and debates that surround the study ofa first language, with reference to the English Language. Hegemony, a keyconcept in linguistic imperialism, is explored and is followed by a call forfurther theoretical perspectives in studying the transnational flow of theEnglish language. The role of modern technology and globalization in second andforeign language acquisition are also explored.

Chapter 28, ‘Multilingualism’, by Jason Cenoz and Durk Gorter, discussesmicro-levels of multilingualism. Attention is given to the psychological, socialand educational views of multilingualism based on the social approach. Thisexposes discussions on some major areas in multilingualism, such as languageprocessing, age, language planning and education, etc. Also, new trends in thearea of language acquisition are examined.

Chapter 29, ‘Language and Migration’, by Mike Baynham, seeks to employ appliedlinguistic research to investigate the continuing transnational andtranslocational mobility and exchange of people, information and products acrossphysical and virtual boundaries, which brings to the forefront the need forlocal and global/international languages. Baynham also seeks to understand howlanguage practices in different domains are shaped by different factors, as wellas the consequences for migrants. Future trends in the field are also examined.

Chapter 30, ‘Discourse Analysis’, by Guy Cook, seeks to highlight themultidisciplinary nature of discourse analysis (DA) and the different approachesinvolved. The issues of how to distinguish DA from other approaches to languageand the varieties of DA are also addressed.

Chapter 31, ‘Critical Discourse Analysis’, by Kieran O’ Halloran, gives anexplanation and demonstration of basic concepts and methods in criticaldiscourse analysis (CDA).

Chapter 32, ‘Neurolinguistics’, by Elizabeth Ahlsén, focuses on how brain damageaffects the use of language at different linguistic levels. The study is basedon some classical frameworks, on which modern frameworks are built. A historicaloverview of the field of neurolinguistics is also included.

In Chapter 33, ‘Psycholinguistics’, by John Field, the central concern is thecognitive processes that underlie the storage, use and acquisition of languageand how they relate to observable neural activity in the brain. Several researchquestions in the field are treated. Field also examines language acquisitionfrom two perspectives while focusing on new debates in the field.

Chapter 34, ‘Sociocultural and Cultural Historical Theories of LanguageDevelopment’, by Steven L. Thorn and Thomas Tasker, focuses on the theories ofhuman development that are grounded in the writings of L. S. Vygotsky. Thewriter examines sociocultural and cultural theories as well as the ‘zone ofproximal development’ in understanding students’ developing capacities that arestill embryonic via dynamic assessment. Also, the concepts of ‘internalization’and ‘regulation’ are explored

Chapter 35, ‘Sociolinguistics’, by Carmen Liamas, is on variationistsociolinguistics. A review of Labovian research is carried out, bringing outvarious approaches and methods of use. Also, the issues of language change,variation and social meaning are discussed, as well as the impact of technologyin the field, which leads to the emergence of new methods and debates.

Chapter 36, ‘Linguistic Ethnography’, by Janet Maybin and Karin Tusting, focuseson the interdisciplinary nature of linguistic ethnography and linguisticanthropology. This is linked to their application in social settings, looking atscholars’ orientation and interest towards using ethnographic approaches inaddressing linguistic and social questions. New fields in the area, as a resultof modern technologies, along with new debates in the field, are also discussed

Chapter 37, ‘Literacy’, by Doris S. Warriner, reviews what literacy is and howit links to applied linguistics. Warriner argues against the old definition ofliteracy and explores the new trends in literacy as products of moderntechnology. She concludes by projecting new areas of study in the field.

In Chapter 38, ‘Stylistics’, Elena Semino explores the notion of stylistics andstyle, and in trying to define them, the author explores two key issuesvis-à-vis ‘dualism’ and ‘monism’. Also, a historical survey of stylistics iscarried out, distinguishing two types of stylistic studies vis-à-vis general andliterary stylistics. Two main approaches to stylistics, as well as futurechallenges in the field, are also explored.

Chapter 39, ‘Grammar’ by Michael Swan, focuses on the relevance of grammar toapplied linguistics. It discusses several models used in the analysis oflanguages. The writer also explores the concept of grammar as a window to theworld, bringing out its inter-relatedness to the activities of human beings.

Chapter 40, ‘Lexis’ by Michael Swan, traces the history of lexis and the rolethat words and lexicalized phrases play in linguistic knowledge and processing.The basic features and terms associated with lexis are highlighted. Also, thearticle looks at the process of retrieving words from the lexicon, along withfactors that affect the process. Lexical variation, as it pertains to differentregions, is also examined. Swan concludes by exploring the hierarchical model oflexis as one of the well known, developed mental models of lexicon.

In Chapter 41, ‘Phonetics and Phonology’, Jeo Barcroft, Gretchen Sunderman andNorbert Schmitt debunk complicatedness associated with phonetics and phonologyand portray speech as a rather complex event. The authors also encouragecross-fertilization between branches of theoretical and applied research. Ahistorical review of the field is carried out and some theoretical models arediscussed. The chapter concludes by emphasizing the need to create anempirically based practical theory that will be appropriate in teaching andlearning.

Chapter 42, ‘Corpus Linguistics’ by Svenja Adolphs and Phoebe M. S. Lin, reviewssome major methods and corpora inherent in the field of corpus linguistics. Theauthors also explore three major contemporary issues in the field vis-à-visphraseology, English language teaching and the web as a corpus. The role ofmodern technologies, as well as emerging challenges in the field, are also explored.

Chapter 43, ‘Cognitive Linguistics’ by Hans-Jörg Schmid and Fredrich Ungerer,focuses on the contributions, implications and relevance of cognitivelinguistics to language teaching. The authors do this based on experientialperspectives, while also introducing the concepts of ‘categorization’ and‘prototype’, as well as the issue of ‘frames’ (i.e. mental referents).

Chapter 44, ‘Systemic Functional Linguistics’ by Lynne Young, centers on theorigin and functions of this model. The chapter also examines the model’srelevance to applied linguistics. Young extensively discusses the meta-functionsof language inherent in systemic functional linguistics and examines thedifferences between generative grammar and systemic functional linguistics.

Chapter 45, ‘Generative Grammar’, by Shigenori Waka Bayashi, clarifies the goalsand scope of generative grammar and describes its relationship with appliedlinguistics. This is done by discussing the basic assumptions and developmentsin this grammar model, while providing reliable tools to exploring how thelearner’s mind works in language acquisition. The chapter concludes by raisingnew questions that the field must explore.

Chapter 46, ‘The Emergence of Language as a Complex Adaptive System’, by Nick C.Ellis, focuses on the exploration approach to explain language emergence. Theauthor proposes the complex adaptive system (CAS) as the most suitable inexplaining the emergence of patterns in a language. Ellis goes on to highlightthe characteristics of CAS and its use in understanding the full range oftechniques involved in cognitive, social and natural sciences.

Chapter 47, ‘Multimodality’, by Theo Van Leeuwen, presents a new dimension tolinguistic analysis or language study -- multimodality. Multimodality isextremely different from monomodal views of language. It is an integration ofdifferent communicative resources, such as image, language, sound and music, andcommunicative events. Van Leeuwen states that linguists and discourse analystshave realized that both spoken and written language cannot be thoroughly studiedin isolation, that is, without recourse to images, typography, layout and color.He traces the evolution of multimodality and schools of linguistics that haveengaged with communicative modes other than language: the Prague School, theParis School, American linguists, and a fourth school that emerged in the 1990s.The two major concerns of multimodal analysis are investigating the similaritiesand differences between different semiotic modes, and the process of integratingsemiotic modes into multimodal texts and communicative events.

EVALUATION

“The Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics” would be a very useful textbookfor an advanced, undergraduate or postgraduate course in the field of appliedlinguistics. English language teachers and curriculum and language plannerswould have a lot to draw upon from this book. Overall, it is very easy tocomprehend; the ideas are logically arranged, especially with the inclusion of ahistorical overview of each topic, with clearly marked sub-sections, eye-openingcurrent and future trends in each topic, and a critical bibliography of selectedreferences at the end of each chapter. These resources give researching studentsa concise directory of materials.

Another strength of this book is the use of authentic quantitative andqualitative corpus-based data in illustrating concepts, which are integratedwith theoretically based arguments. This is indeed commendable. All the articlespresent applied linguistics as a very vibrant and attractive field whichencapsulates almost every activity of humankind.

The authors in each chapter are able to streamline the challenges in eachfield, even though all solutions to challenges are not necessarily addressed.For instance, in Chapter 1, Wee does not suggest a probable solution to theissue of global migration (pp. 18-19). In addressing the language situation inNigeria, Babajide in Adeyanju (2007: 39) sums up LPP challenges by stating thatthe concern should be how to rescue the indigenous languages, including theso-called major languages, from extinction. Thus, the issue of global migrationand the related issue of ensuring the well-being and dignity of individuals asthey move across the globe in search of a better life ought to be well addressed.

Thus, it is the opinion of this reviewer that immigrants should, as a point ofresponsibility for stability and effective functioning in their new environment,learn at least one of the major languages of whichever country in which theywish to settle. The ability to interact in such a language should be one of thebases for granting visas. A relevant example is what is obtainable in Germany,where an immigrant is, as a matter of necessity, mandated to attend a four-monthlanguage course in Dutch in order for that person to function effectively insociety without fear of suspicion.

In agreement with the writers, business communication is a discipline that isunder-researched and scholars are urged to embark on more studies in this area,particularly in exploring the relationship between discursive activities andprofessional practices in institutional contexts. Conversely, in exploring theinter-relatedness of business communication and English for business purposes inChapter 2, this reviewer suggests that the two concepts be merged or usedinterchangeably since they both study the use of language in businesstransactions and relationships (p. 35). Business communication should not onlyfocus on communication in an organized setting, that is, in the workplace, butshould also entail how relationships are achieved in business, which wouldfoster globalization.

In addition, in Chapter 3, on medical communication, little attention is givento the importance of the role of the patient in medical discourse. It is thussuggested that closer attention be given to the aforementioned participant, asit can serve as a diagnostic resource for psychiatry.

Furthermore, Kramsch, in ‘Language and Culture’, did not provide an introductionto the topic. Since introductions lend a sense of direction to a study, itshould always be a mandatory feature in works of this nature.

Looking at the chapter on sign language (pp. 359-372), by Woll et al, it isstated that like other natural languages, sign language can be studied at alllevels of linguistics analysis vis-à-vis phonology, morphology, syntax,pragmatics and discourse. However, there should be another level of analysisthat accounts for the use of gestures in sign language. Also, the diagram onpage 617, under the topic ‘cognitive linguistics’, would have been moreillustrative with the use of errors, just as is found on page 641 under‘generative grammar’.

In ‘Institutional Discourse’, by Celia Roberts, metaphors could also be used inanalyses, as they are not just figures of speech, but also part of the cognitiveability of humans (Lakoff et al 1985). For instance, in the use of the imageschema “ideas are resources”, we could have sentences such as “He ran out ofideas”, “Don’t waste your thoughts on small projects”, “He is a resourcefulman’, “That idea will go a long way”, and so on. Looking at the series ofsentences above, one can see that these sentences could be instances ofinstitutional discourse, especially during board meetings.

‘Sociolinguistics’ (Chapter 35, pp. 501-515) makes for very interesting reading.However, even though sociolinguistic variation as a topic is inexhaustive,reference should have been made to language loss as a possible offshoot oflanguage change.

Furthermore, in discussing multilingualism (pp. 401-412) and bilingual education(pp. 229-242), attention should be paid to Africa, especially to Anglophone WestAfrica. This is because, according to “Ethnologue” (Gordon 2005), almost half ofthe world’s languages are found in this region, making it one of the mostlinguistically diversified in the world. Throughout the handbook, very littleresearch is drawn from this region. Future similar works would benefit from itsinclusion because studies of this region would unfold a lot of linguisticpeculiarities yet to be explored.

Multimodality (Chapter 47, pp. 668-680) explores insightful ideas. Although thearticle presents a fresh insight into linguistic analysis with thoroughattention to other modes of communication, the adaptation of various linguisticterms (e.g. Given, New, conjunction, etc.) to explain the position andinteraction between word and image in a multimodal text seemsinadequate/limited, as only English linguistic terms are deployed. It might benecessary to investigate other cultures with different language structures,grammars and terms to justify validity and universality of these terms.

Overall, this handbook makes an interesting and expository read. It isexcellently constructed, except for some typographical errors that wereencountered. In all, the articles are timely and relevant to language scholarsin the 21st century and beyond, especially with the inclusion of the role ofmodern technologies in all the issues discussed.

REFERENCES

Adeyanju, O. (2007). Sociolinguistics in the Nigerian context. Ile-Ife: ObafemiAwolowo University Press.

Gordon, R. J. (2005). Linguistic diversity in Africa and Europe, Languages ofthe World. Retrieved Wednesday, June15, 2011.http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=nigeriahttp://languages-of-the-http://languages-of-the-world.blogspot.com/2011/06/linguistic-diversity-in-africa-and.htmlhttp://journals. Cambridge.org retrieved 1-9-2011.http:// languagecontact.humanities Manchester.ac.ukretrieved 1-9.

Kachru, B. B. (1985). “Standards, codification and socioilinguistic realism: theEnglish Language in the Outer Circle”. R. Quirk & H. G. Widdowson (eds.).English in the World: Teaching and Learning the Language and Literatures, pp.11-30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (1986). Metaphors We Live By. Chicago, Illinois:University ofChicago Press.

Richards, J. & Rodger, T. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching toEducation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

ABOUT THE REVIEWER

Taiwo O. Abioye holds a PhD degree in English Language from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The areas of her research interests and publications include stylistics, media language, literacy, pragmatics and applied linguistics. She is currently head of the Department of Languages, Covenant University, Ota-Nigeria, where she also teaches.


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