LINGUIST List 24.3145

Mon Aug 05 2013

Review: Applied Linguistics; General Linguistics: Heine & Narrog (2012)

Editor for this issue: Rajiv Rao <>

Date: 13-May-2013
From: Seetha Jayaraman <>
Subject: The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis
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Book announced at

EDITOR: Bernd Heine
EDITOR: Heiko Narrog
TITLE: The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis
SERIES TITLE: Oxford Handbooks
PUBLISHER: Oxford University Press
YEAR: 2012

REVIEWER: Seetha Jayaraman, Dhofar University


“The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis”, edited by Bernd Heine and Heiko Narrog, is a large volume consisting of thirty three chapters on different approaches to linguistic analysis related to morphological, syntactic, semantic and morpho-phonological categories. It has a total of 1016 pages, which includes a list of abbreviations, a brief account of the contributors, an introduction to the volume by the editors, all articles, an extensive list of references, and an exhaustive index of languages, names and subjects treated in the volume. The references are particularly impressive in that they comprise a small booklet covering almost all the subfields of linguistics. The volume also provides a reference on recent developments in the interpretation of linguistic theories and discusses the salient features of these theories. Supplementary sources to the readings are made available on the website

Chapter 1, “Introduction”, by the editors Bernd Heine and Heiko Narrog, begins with the definition of ‘sound’ and the distinction between ‘sound’ and ‘language’. The chapter discusses how languages evolve, presenting the goals, approaches, models, programs and theories dealt with in language taxonomy, along with the orientation and the place of linguistic analysis in this field of research. The interplay among the domains of language structure, linguistic categories, their typologies, synchronic versus diachronic phenomena, and the sociolinguistic criteria affecting these phenomena are explained in order to familiarize the reader with the range of subjects which are discussed in the rest of the volume.

Chapter 2, “The Adaptive Approach to Grammar”, by Talmy Givón, outlines approaches adaptable to syntactic representations, grammar, structure and functions, mental models in the interpretation of rules, and developments in adapting grammar as a tool of human communication. It also discusses the typological diversity which exists across different languages and theoretical perspectives on grammatical description. Although many strategies can be adapted, the functional and typological approach to grammar helps to better explain language in its communicational, cognitive, neuro-biological and anthropological aspects.

Chapter 3, “The Cartography of Syntactic Structures”, by Guglielmo Cinque and Luigi Rizzi, provides insights into the cartography of syntactic structures. This chapter addresses drawing structural maps for all possible syntactic configurations of sentences, and also includes methodologies and evidence which can be used in describing functional projections. The differences between cartography and minimalism, and the hierarchy between syntax and semantics, are highlighted. Although syntax is constrained by semantics, it is flexible enough to extend the scope beyond meaning. This is because syntax is organized to express meaning, but it neither dissolves into the mere organization of meaningful units to express meanings, nor minimizes the meaning.

Chapter 4, “ Categorial Grammar”, by Glyn Morrill, gives an account of the complexity of categorical grammar by using Lambeck calculus to deal with symmetry in linguistic analysis involving multiple arguments in syntactic structures. The processes involved in Basic Discontinuous Lambek Calculus (BDLS) (Morrill and Fadda 2008) and Typed Lambda Calculus (TLC) using a variable binding operator (the ƛ) to name functions are all discussed. BDLS forms the basis of functional programming languages. Type-logical semantics is another category discussed which is associated with derivational and lexical semantics.

Chapter 5, “Cognitive Grammar”, by Ronald W. Langacker, continues the discussion on contextualizing interacting processes in the cognitive and sociocultural aspects of language structure, conceptual semantics, symbolic grammar and of presenting structures and expressing meaning. The author justifies the point that language description using the Cognitive Grammar(CG) framework can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in different languages and has implications for dealing with a variety of classic problems like passive “raising” conclusions and pronominal anaphora. It is further argued that CG has the methodological merits of being restrictive while also achieving significant conceptual unification. Above all, CG relies on well known or easily demonstrated cognitive phenomena in explaining many aspects of semantics and grammar. Finally, an important application of CG is in the field of language pedagogy and lexicography

The next chapter, “Embodied Construction Grammar”, by Jerome Feldman, Ellen Dodge and John Bryant, introduces Embodied Construction Grammar (ECG) and its scientific basis for the underlying Neural Theory of Language (NTL) and Cognitive Linguistics (CG). This chapter focuses on form-meaning relations at all levels of language use, and extends its analysis to include morphology and semiotics. The ideas are also extendable to speech, intonation and gesture. The analysis takes into consideration some conceptual and grammatical primitives in linguistic studies, and language learning, like emotional and social factors.

Chapter 7, “Sign-Based Construction Grammar”, by Laura A. Michaelis, analyzes Sign-based Construction Grammar (SBCG), as well as its history and formal architecture. The explanations center around syntactic constructions involving argument structure and verbal complementation patterns. The topics treated are core and periphery interleafing during production and unmapped constructions, based on the foundation of the Chomskyan theory of Universal Grammar (UG).

Chapter 8, “Corpus-Based and Corpus-Driven Analyses of Language Variation and Use”, by Douglas Biber, mentions that while a corpus-based approach aims to discover new systematic patterns which govern the use of linguistic features, a corpus-driven approach aims to account for variation with respect to corpus evidence, drawing from recurring patterns of language in context. Corpus-driven analyses assume the existence of word forms, as in the case of identifying frequent word sequences based on the frequency of occurrence and distributional criteria. This chapter also deals with the interdependence of lexis, grammar and meaning in the analysis of Pattern Grammar. The last section is devoted to a discussion of the linguistic dimension of register variation in language analysis.

Chapter 9, “Default Semantics”, by Kasia M. Jaszczolt, contains an account of Default Semantics, contextualization, and syntactic constraints on interpreting utterance meaning. According to the author, meaning is an output which is a merging of information from five different sources: world knowledge, word meaning and sentence structure, situation of discourse, properties of the human inferential system and stereotypes, and presumptions about society and culture. Another dimension dealt with is the default versus inferential components of merger representation (Ʃ); these representations in definite descriptions and the time domain are also detailed.

Chapter 10, “Dependency Grammar and Valency Theory, by Vilmos Ágel and Klaus Fischer, outlines Dependency Grammar (DG) and Valency Theory (VT) based on Tesnière’s Structural Syntax and Valency Theory. The authors claim that DG is a projectionist theory that describes structures based on individual lexemes. This theory is not restricted to abstract structures, but rather aims to describe larger samples of natural language. VT investigates the essentials of language in terms of the universal and individual characteristics of languages. Extensions and the potential of VT concepts are also discussed, along with the fundamental, positional and meaning relationships between complements and arguments.

Chapter 11, “An Emergentist Approach to Syntax”, by William O’Grady, describes an emergentist approach to syntax based on the mechanisms which account for syntactic theories of representations referenced in Binding, Control, Agreement and Coordination. Restrictions with respect to the relationship between Wh-dependencies and the argument position of verbs or prepositions are presented. A few questions related to problems seen in language acquisition and language variation in terms of individual lexical properties are addressed by drawing examples from English and German.

Chapter 12, “Formal Generative Typology”, by Mark C. Baker, highlights the key aspects of Formal Generative Typology (FGT). This approach addresses: the properties of natural human languages and their status as either universal or vary across languages; whether the aspects of variation are patterned, systematic and grammatical in nature; and, if some properties are random, idiosyncratic and lexical in nature. The implication of these aspects about the origin and the nature of the human mind is discussed with respect to the complexities of our syntactic systems. Among these are universality and needs of language acquisition, universality and observing diverse language, and universals and abstractness based on the assumptions of functionalists and typologists. The chapter also covers the relationship between different subfields of linguistics, such as morphology and syntax, and syntax and pragmatics. The chapter concludes that FGT is a pragmatic and eclectic approach, combining abstractness with typology in linguistic analysis in order to account for variation among unrelated languages.

Chapter 13, “A Frames Approach to Semantic Analysis”, by Charles J. Fillmore and Collin Baker, talks about the distinction between cognitive frames and frame semantics, associating linguistic forms with cognitive structures in the interpretation of meaning. A general outline of the process of FrameNet Lexical analysis, as well as the following steps involved in the process, are provided: characterizing frames; describing and naming frame elements (Fes); selecting Lexical Units (LUs); creating annotations of sentences and generating lexical entries and valence descriptions in order to summarize observations derived from the analysis. All of these steps create a frame-based data base that accounts for individual words or phrases and defines them in terms of the Berkeley FrameNet Project (Fontenelle 2003, This FrameNet does not project the direct representation of LU-LU relationships like hyponymy, synonymy, antonymy or polysemy. Finally, FrameNets are useful for comparing across languages, and thus, Spanish FrameNet, Chinese FrameNet and Japanese FrameNet are currently being developed.

Chapter 14, “Framework-Free Grammatical Theory, by Martin Haspelmath, is a summary of the framework-free analytical method, which believes in approaching a description of language without applying an aprioristic, pre-established framework to it. It is argued that every language must be described based on its individual structures, which are distinct from other languages. Terms like framework, format, theory, and grammar are all rejected in favor of concepts used in the description, teaching and learning of individual features. Examples from English and German are used to support Haspelmath’s view.

Chapter 15, “Functional Discourse Grammar”, by Kees Hengeveld and J. Lachlan Mackenzie, introduces Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), based on the typological model of language structure, and orients this model within the field of grammatical theories. The authors deal with four levels of linguistic organization -- the interpersonal, representational, morphosyntactic and phonological levels -- and demonstrate the interaction of these levels within the grammars. Overall, the authors claim that FDG is designed as the grammatical component of a wider theory of verbal interaction connected to conceptual, contextual and output components, and is applicable to static and dynamic data in linguistic analysis.

Chapter 16, “Grammaticalization and Linguistic Analysis”, by Bernd Heine and Heiko Narrog, discusses the process of grammaticalization, defining the phenomenon as the “development from lexical to grammatical forms, and from grammatical to even more grammatical forms”(p. 401). The authors opine that it is important to draw on typological generalizations in order to understand and explain structural properties and functional categories of language, when viewed diachronically. Communicative, cognitive and social aspects are relevant tools to describe language change and innovations adopted by a speech community, while grammatical taxonomy and findings on grammaticalization based on traditional principles of classification are not very appropriate in arriving at a comprehensive account of grammatical structures.

Chapter 17, “ Lexical-Functional Grammar”, by Ash Asudeh and Ida Toivonen, explains Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG), developed by Joan Bresnan and Ron Kaplan in the 1970s, which deals with psychological and computational tractability of grammatical structure, thus creating a theory which can be the basis for a realistic model of linguistic learnability and language processing tractability. This chapter presents an account of two syntactic structures -- Constituent Structure (C-structure) and Functional Structures (F-structure) -- along different syntactic categories. C-structures are represented as phrase structure trees word order, dominance constituency and syntactic categories, and F-structures are represented by the grammatical, functional sub-categories of subject and object, as well as by morphosyntactic information such as case, agreement features, tense and aspect. F-structures deal with the abstract syntactic level and C-structures deal with surface realizations. This chapter also draws a correspondence between the two types of structures, and overall, provides a useful framework for analyzing language change. Consequently, LFG can represent both synchronic and diachronic variation.

Chapter 18, “The Natural Semantic Metalanguage Approach”, by Cliff Goddard, is yet another compelling chapter which offers a different and exhaustive approach to meaning in linguistic analysis. This approach is unconventional, systematic, advanced and distributed in its explanation of various phenomena in different languages, such as lexica, morphology, syntax, prosody and pragmatics. Appendix A, provided at the end of the chapter, illustrates semantic primes through examples from Japanese and Russian.

Chapter 19, “Linguistic Minimalism”, by Cedric Boeckx, explores this approach based on Chomsky’s principles on the nature of the human language faculty. The author traces the origin of Minimalist Theory to Galilean and Darwinian Theories, and extends it to the basic properties of language, such as the creative aspect of language use, or the innate basis of knowledge identified by rationalists like Descartes and Leibniz in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Chapter 20, “Morphological Analysis”, by Geert E. Booij, deals with morphological analysis in terms of form-meaning correspondence. The basic functions of word formation and inflections to create new words, including the notions of ‘root’ and ‘stem’ with reference to English, are discussed. Lexical and morphological analyses at the phonological level and the morphology- phonology interface are focused upon in terms of syllable boundaries, specifically in relation to morphological boundaries, using Dutch complex word formation and word stress. The interface between morphology and both semantics and syntax, and affix ordering form the topics of discussion on the process of complex word formation and morphological productivity.

Chapter 21, “Optimality Theory in Phonology”, by Maria Gouskova, gives an overview of Optimality Theory (OT) as a generative phonological theory, and as a tool for solving issues dealing with constraint interaction in grammar. Constraints on vowel deletion, geminate simplification and morpheme concatenation in a few languages like Tonkawa (an extinct language which was spoken in Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico), English, Russian, Spanish and Czech are dealt with in detail. The three key components of OT -- CON (universal, violable constraints), GEN (output parses generated based on input forms) and EVAL (the component that selects the optimal output(s) -- and the language specific organization of grammar based on OT are treated elaborately. The role of OT in explaining lexical input and variation that exists within the grammar of a language are accounted for by illustrating (de)geminated variants in the Tonkawa language.

Chapter 22, “Optimization Principles in the Typology of Number and Articles”, by Henriëtte de Swart and Joost Zwarts, is an extension of the previous chapter, but shifts the focus to OT as a tool for typological investigations on, for example, the use of morphological markedness constraints to account for functional information of nouns (e.g. Funct N, the use of plurality, as found in Mandarin Chinese, Hindi and Polish). The last section of the chapter is devoted to the extension of OT to generic reference and nominal structure. The distinct, cross-linguistic variation in the occurrence of plural genericity is explained through a constraint ranking incorporating the three functional aspects of nouns: singular/plural, discourse representation, and definite/indefinite status.

Chapter 23, “The Parallel Architecture and its Place in Cognitive Science”, by Ray Jackendoff, demonstrates that Parallel Architecture (PA) is a better mode of realizing biolinguistic goals than the Minimalist Program, namely because it is more compatible with linguistic theory and cognitive science. Parallel Architecture addresses questions on the generative capacity of language using phonological, syntactic and semantic structures. Another dimension of this approach relates to the lexicon, in particular, specific proposals about semantics, phrasal syntax, and interfaces. According to PA, there is “A correspondence between chunks of phonological, syntactic, and semantic structures” (p. 589) (unlike traditional grammar rules, which fit a word into a syntactic structure). The other components of PA are Conceptual Semantics (CS) and Simpler Syntax (SS), which integrate linguistic theories with meaning and cognitive science, and offer a better outlook than does the Minimalist Program.

Chapter 24, “Neo-Gricean Pragmatic Theory of Conversational Implicature”, by Yan Huang, presents both the dualistic model of Horn and the Trinitarian model of Levison. It also gives an overview of the role played by Neo-Gricean Theory in simplifying lexica, semantics and syntax based on Grice’s two classical theories: (1) Theory of Meaning; and (2) Theory of Conversational Implicature. Grice emphasized the relationship between natural meaning and non-natural linguistic meaning of utterances. Levison’s account of conversational implicature devised complex mechanisms that apply reasoning to interpret and make correct predictions, and also systematized individual types of conversational implicatures. Horn’s proposal was based on Q(uantity) and R(elation) Principles, while Levison’s principles were more simplified along the metalinguistic, M-Principle. The final section focuses on the pragmatics-syntax interface, and concerns anaphora and the binding principles of Chomsky’s feature representation of Noun Phrases (NPs) (Chomsky, 1995).

Chapter 25, “Probabilistic Linguistics”, by Rens Bod, is an account of probabilistic linguistics and its merits as linguistic evidence in modeling linguistic phenomena, both in production and perception. According to this theory, competence is viewed as a set of probabilistically organized memories of linguistic experiences, and there is one single model (i.e., the phrase structure tree, or functional attribute value matrix using universal representation) that explains linguistic experiences.

Chapter 26, “Linguistic Relativity”, by Eric Pederson, unlike earlier chapters, deals with linguistic relativity as a way of covering all linguistic studies, and explores the works of earlier researchers, beginning with the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. Other features focused on are: the relation between linguistic relativity, language pattern and cognitively driven behavior; language development and the different domains of research on language and cognition, such as color, space, time, motion, grammatical gender and number; logical and arithmetic numbers; and emotions and personality.

Chapter 27, “Relevance Theory”, by FranciscoYus, is an introduction to Relevance Theory (RT) a cognitive pragmatic theory developed in the mid-80s by Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson. The role of cognition, intention, coding/inferring and the mutual manifestation of assumptions are the highlights of the chapter. Within RT, there is a distinction between semantics/pragmatics and coded/inferred distinctions in the interpretation of a person’s utterance. Relevance is also measured in terms of a cognitive cost-benefit procedure. The hearer chooses and selects information which both reinforces previous assumptions and results in the most effort-relieving interpretation. According to RT, the two basic steps in interpretation are: (1) order of accessibility of information; and (2) being able to stop when the expectation of relevance is satisfied. Another key area discussed in RT is the explicit/implicit distinction in utterance interpretation and its relation to grammar and the social aspects of communication, which are discussed briefly, with empirical evidence.

Chapter 28, “Role and Reference Grammar as a Framework for Linguistic Analysis”, by Robert D. Van Valin Jr., gives a comprehensive picture of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) as a theoretical framework in linguistic analysis and links it to: syntactic representation (of clause structure, nucleus-core-periphery); semantic units underlying syntactic structures and their operators; semantic representations/lexical representations; and grammatical relations. These points are illustrated through examples from Mandarin Chinese and Turkish. Overall, RRG is claimed to be a useful framework to analyze morphosyntactic phenomena.

Chapter 29, “The Analysis of Signed Languages”, by Sherman Wilcox and Phyllis Perrin Wilcox, provides a very impressive description of ‘signed languages’ (the term used in analogy with spoken and written languages). The chapter analyzes manifestations of visual-gestural communication by applying phonological information. The cognitive processes of iconicity, metaphor, and metonymy play a predominant role in the use of gestures and signs. The relation between gestural forms and meaning and grammaticalization are extended to the codification and development of the gesture-lexical and morpheme-grammatical marker interfaces. References to American Sign Language (ASL), Catalan Sign Language (LSC), Italian Sign Language (LIS) are made. Finally, a special reference is also made to prosody/intonation, which is supported by illustrations from facial articulations.

Chapter 30, “Simpler Syntax”, by Peter W. Culicover, provides an overview of the most significant grammatical functions and implications of Simpler Syntax (SS) with regard to linguistic phenomena such as ellipsis, control and raising, and argument alternations (e.g. active/passive constructions). There are parallels drawn between SS and Chomsky (1965), Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), and Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG), which are all substantiated. According to the author, syntax is made simpler by this theory, namely through semantic interpretations and simplified rules.

Chapter 31, “Systemic Functional Grammar and the Study of Meaning”, by Alice Caffarel, discusses the use of Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) in studying meaning in context, as postulated by Halliday (1978, 1994, 1996), Halliday and Hasan (1985) and Halliday and Matthiessen (1999, 2004). The author illustrates SFG as an effective tool in understanding meaning in language. English and French examples provide evidence in favor of this theory. The table (p. 799) showing the difference in orientation between formal and functional theories of language, as summarized by Halliday (1978), summarizes the main thrust of the chapter in a nutshell. Furthermore, the importance of SFG concepts in the semiotic domain (stratification and instantiation) in describing the creation of meaning in language is a specific area of concentration. The other key dimension discussed is register variation, with reference to logogenesis (i.e. the synchronic creation of meaning through particular features), phylogenesis (i.e. the creation of meaning from a diachronic, systemic perspective) and ontogenesis (i.e. the evolution of a linguistic system in the individual from protolanguage to language). The key aspects of the metafunctional dimension of the systemic organization of language and the correlation between contextual variables and metafunctions are discussed via a structural description using French grammar and clause structure. Overall, SFG finds its application in many contexts, such as the study of literature, translation, artificial intelligence, multimodal texts, psychiatry, language disorders, and so on.

Chapter 32, “Usage-Based Theory”, by Joan L. Bybee and Clay Beckner, describes the applicability of this theory, which helps explain the interrelations between grammatical morphemes (e.g. function words and affixes) and dynamic changes in language through the interaction of social and cognitive processes. The cognitive processes, lexical units and structural properties of language together account for the dual nature of language, which undergoes change in systematic ways. This chapter also provides background to the theory, which postulates that the units and structure of language emerge out of specific communicative events (pg. 829). The author believes that Usage-Based Theory relies on the basic capacities of the human brain, such as sequential and statistical learning, chunking, and categorization. According to Fillmore et al.(1988), this model adopts constructions as the basic unit of form-meaning correspondence, which is substantiated with examples from the British National Corpus (BNC).

The last chapter in this volume, “Word Grammar”, by Richard Hudson, summarizes Word Grammar (WG) exhaustively, in all its aspects and at all levels. The topics covered begin with the aims of WG and the relations between the elements of language, and continue with a summary of claims made by the principles and rules postulated for the individual structural units of language, in relation to aspects of meaning and networks of meaningful units (e.g. synonyms and homonyms). The mechanism assumed in WG is based on reasoning and the default inheritance of general linguistic theories and principles. Therefore, logic plays a key role in explaining exceptions in irregular morphology (e.g. irregular past tense verb forms in English). A detailed account of networks concerning words and features, as well as hierarchies of word classes, sub-classes, lexemes and sub-lexemes, including inflections, forms the main theme of this concluding chapter. The author’s analysis shows that “unlike many other contemporaries….. WG classified words without using feature-structures” (p. 872). Morphology and dependency structures in English syntax are well justified by WG structures, particularly where two structures share the same word (e.g. wh-questions). In addition, the chapter concludes with sample structures to illustrate the relevance of its explanations for semantics, language learning and language use in social context, and also includes comparisons between time and space in WG.


The book is a comprehensive guide, reference, encyclopedia, and textbook; it represents an all-in-one volume covering linguistic theories posited in diverse scholarly works by eminent linguists and language analysts. The handbook, apart from putting forth arguments in favor of classical and contemporary theories, also presents excerpts from diverse approaches and viewpoints from different perspectives of language analysis. The editors’ selection and compilation of articles on linguistic analysis, presenting the correspondence between the sub-fields of morphology and syntax, and syntax and semantics, are truly commendable.

The handbook is a collection of both theoretical and empirical studies on familiar and not-so-familiar languages. Special mention must be made of Chapter 14, on Framework-free Grammatical Theory because, while earlier chapters refer to a frame or a theory to interpret grammar and meaning, this chapter offers an explanation departing from traditional approaches. This approach advocates an unprejudiced description which overrides possible biases from models which are posited earlier. The chapter emphasizes the researcher’s ability to discover new phenomena based exclusively on the data and one’s own perception of language(s).

Chapter 20, on morphological analysis and its interface with phonology, is distinct in its observations and presentation in that the use of electronic sources and the internet are recommended as the preferred tools for morphological research rather than dictionaries, which suffer from restrictions on the data selected by individual lexicographers. The actual corpora of language provide the possibility of investigating morphological processes correlated with factors of language use and properties of language users. Likewise, other interesting chapters are Chapter 29, on the analysis of signed languages, and Chapter 30, on Simpler Syntax; both effectively facilitate the reader’s comprehension of the theories in question. Chapter 29 delves into questions on the nature, origin and evolution of the language faculty. The fact that it discusses signed languages in relation to optical, acoustic data and observations of the linguistic system is impressive. Furthermore, the explanation contained in Chapter 30, showing how complex syntactic structures connect with other components of grammar, is interesting. Overall, the last chapter is the most compelling, and serves as a perfect conclusion to the dense volume of individual and comparative theoretical presentations, as it briefly traces the history of theories of Word Grammar and syntactic/semantic interpretations discussed in earlier chapters.


Chomsky, N.(1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Chomsky, N. (1995). The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Fillmore, Charles J., Paul Kay and Mary C.O’Connor. (1998). Regularity and idiomaticity in grammatical Constructions: the case of ‘let alone’ Language 64:501-38.

Fontenelle, Thierry (ed.). (2003) International Journal of Lexicography 16.3 (special issue on FrameNet).

Halliday, M.A.K. (1978). Language as Social Semiotic: The Social interpretation of Language and Meaning. London: Edward Arnold.

Halliday, M.A.K. (1994). An Introduction to Functional Grammar, 2nd ed. London: Arnold.

Halliday, M.A.K. (1996). On grammar and grammatics. In Ruqaiya Hasan, Carmel Cloran, and David Butt (eds.), Functional Descriptions: Theory in Practice. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp.1-38.

Halliday, M.A.K. and Hasan (1985). Language, Context and Text: Aspects of Language in a Social-Semiotic Perspective. Geelong, Vic.: Deakin University Press.

Halliday, M.A.K. and Christian Matthiessen (1999). Language-Based Approach to Cognition. London: Continuum.

Halliday, M.A.K. (2004) An Introduction to Functional Grammar, 3rd ed. London:Arnold.

Morrill, Glyn and Mario Fadda (2008). Proof nets for basic discontinuous Lambek Calculus, Logic and Computation 18:239-56.


Dr. Seetha Jayaraman is a Lecturer at Dhofar University, Sultanate of Oman, where she teaches English to graduate students. Her research interests include sociolinguistics, comparative linguistics, and phonetics.

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