"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Jaqaru, a member of the Jaqi family of languages (Jaqaru, Kawki, Aymara), is spoken in the Andes Mountains of PerG by a few thousand people resident both in Tupe and nearby villages and as migrants in cities. Children today are all bilingual in Jaqaru and Spanish. Access to Tupe is by a foot and pack animal road. The phonemic system distinguishes 36 consonants but only 3 vowels. Vowel dropping is significant, complex and pervasive, marking case and phrase structure as well as style. The language makes extensive use of morphology, with all verbs carrying several suffixes. Syntax is morphologically marked; verbal person suffixes mark simultaneously object/subject; data source is marked at all levels of grammar. Within the nominal system inclusive/exclusive and humanness are marked. MJ HARDMAN is Professor of Anthropology and Linguistics at the University of Florida. She began study of Jaqaru in the fifties and has since been continually involved with one or another of the Jaqi languages for which she has written grammars, teaching materials and cultural studies. She founded INEL (Instituto Nacional de Estudios Ling]Lsticos) in Bolivia and the Aymara Language Materials Program at the University of Florida. Her current research also involves language and gender and the patterning of worldview in language.