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"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more

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What is English? And Why Should We Care?

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To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.

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Title: Silence in Spontaneous Dyadic English Conversation
Subtitle: Structures, Meanings and Functions
Written By: Yan Zuo

This research attempts at an exploration into the silence phenomenon as it occurs in dyadic English conversations. The fundamental position assumed throughout is that silence is far more than a mere absence of speech; rather it is a linguistically significant category constituting an integral part of the communicative framework of conversation. Accordingly, it is argued that as such, three dimensions might be identified for silence, namely, structure, meaning and function.

Stemming from this assumption and based on a quick literature review as well as a critical examination of the preliminaries concerning both the structure and organization of the conversation (such as the concept of turn, turn -constructional unit etc.), a theoretical construct is proposed, developed and finally illustrated with two case studies. Broadly speaking, this const ruct comprises three components, i.e. a classification scheme, a descriptive/explanatory framework, and an analytic model.

To begin with, it is contended that silence in conversation is classifiable and that it can most aptly be classified according to its location within the overall conversational structure. Two general categories are first distinguished at the primary level, respectively referred to as within-turn and between-turn silence, with the turn serving as the reference unit. Within each category, subdivisions are further made, still be the location criterion: under the rubric of within-turn silence are differentiated within-unit and between-unit silences with the turn-constructional unit as the reference unit, whilst under that of between-turn silence are distinguished Sequence
-internal and Sequence-external silences with the reference unit being the carefully defined unit of Sequence.

Next, the categories and subcategories thus identified are discussed in great detail in terms of the three dimensions of structure, meaning and function, thereby developing a descriptive and explanatory model. Under the heading of structure, three parameters are identified, i.e., location, duration and frequency, which are respectively dealt with for each (sub)category. The meanings of silence are likewise treated by dividing them into the two broad aspects of connotative and denotative ones on the latter of which is placed greater emphasis by postulating the mechanism entailed by the interpretation of such meanings. With regard to the dimension of functions, it is a rgued that occurring within the context of conversation which is characterized by the simultaneous presence of cognitive planning and dynamic interaction between participants, silence in conversation may acquire both cognitive and interactional functions (in the case of between-unit silences, a linguistic function is also involved). Furthermore, there exists some degree of interaction between the multiple functions thus identified.

It is further pointed out that conversation is also featured as being simultaneously a process as well as a product, based on which, different perspectives may be adopted in examining the silence phenomenon occurring within. An analytic model is therefore developed by viewing conversation more as an ongoing process than as an accomplished product where the relationship between various categories and subcategories, with its nature being identified as actualization, is explored.

Publication Year: 2002
Publisher: Lincom GmbH
Review: Not available for review. If you would like to review a book on The LINGUIST List, please login to view the AFR list.
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Linguistic Field(s): Pragmatics
Subject Language(s): English
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Format: Hardback
ISBN: 3895866768
ISBN-13: N/A
Pages: 260 pp.
Prices: USD 65 / EUR 67 / £ 44