The study of the Hebrew language in Protestant Europe initiated the development of modern philology. Christian theology and Jewish tradition fostered Christian Hebraism, which functioned as a catalyst for many subjects in the humanities. This volume presents the results of a conference held in Wittenberg in October 2002. It evaluates the history of Christian Hebraism, from Jewish grammatical works up to the Hebrew training of Protestant missionaries. Prominent figures like Ludwig Geiger and Hermann L. Strack as well as different centres of Hebrew learning from Basel to Groningen are described in detail in fourteen essays. They focus on the influence of Humanism, Kabbalah and the renewed discussions about the philosophical works of Maimonides.