"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Effects of Frequency in Classroom Second Language Learning
Linguistic Insights. Studies in Language and Communication. Vol. 70
The view of exemplar-based second language learning emphasizes the
importance of frequency in learning grammar. According to this view, type
frequency rather than token frequency contributes to learning generalized
knowledge beyond item-based constructions. This book investigates how
frequency in experiencing exemplars affects the learning of the English
primary verb 'be' by junior high school students in Japan. The study
consists of a quasi-experiment and stimulated-recall analysis of the data.
The quasi-experiment compares three kinds of output practice: practice with
increased type frequency, practice with increased token frequency, and
practice without increased frequency. The experiment also explores how the
frequency effects relate to the extent of explicit knowledge about the
target structures. In the stimulated-recall analysis, learners engaging in
the type frequency practice and those engaging in the token frequency
practice are compared in terms of thought processes employed while
practicing. The book discusses how frequency promotes classroom second
language learning by taking the role of awareness of form-meaning
connections into consideration.
Usage-based model of language - Connectionism - ACT-R theory - The roles of
type frequency and token frequency in learning grammar - The roles of
explicit instruction and explicit knowledge in second language learning -
Implicit learning and explicit learning - Processing instruction -
Structured output practice - Form-meaning connections - Repeated noticing -
Strengthening of association - Problems with learning the English primary