"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
This book connects two linguistic phenomena, modality and subordinators, so
that both are seen in a new light, each adding to the understanding of the
other. It argues that general subordinators (or complementizers) denote
propositional modality (otherwise expressed by moods such as the
indicative-subjunctive and epistemic-evidential modal markers). The book
explores the hypothesis both on a cross-linguistic and on a language-branch
specific level (the Germanic languages). One obvious connection between the
indicative-subjunctive distinction and subordinators is that the former is
typically manifested in subordinate clauses. Furthermore, both the
indicative-subjunctive and subordinators determine clause types. More
importantly, however, it is shown, through data from various languages,
that subordinators themselves often denote the indicative-subjunctive
distinction. In the Germanic languages, there is variation in many clause
types between both the indicative and the subjunctive and that and
if depending on the speaker’s and/or the subject’s certainty of the
truth of the proposition.