"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
A Cognitive Approach to Adverbial Subordination in European Portuguese
The Infinitive, the Clitic Pronoun Se and Finite Verb Forms
The study of adverbial clauses in Portuguese is related to the fact that the
Portuguese speaker may chose between three different structures, i.e. the
adverbial clause may contain the plain infinitive, the inflected infinitive or a
finite verb form. In the field of Portuguese Linguistics, the analysis of these
structures has traditionally been conducted from a Generative Grammar
perspective postulating abstract rules and transformations in order to explain
the variation between these structures. As a result, focus has been put on
purely structural aspects, while conceptual differences have been highly
neglected. The present book challenges this view of linguistic analysis.
Instead of proposing a general semantic content for finite and infinitive
adverbial clauses in Portuguese—traditionally based on notions like deep
structure and surface structure—the hypothesis put forward is that these
clauses evoke different meanings and that the use of one adverbial structure
or another can be explained by the context in which it occurs and by the
conceptual content it designates. From a Cognitive Grammar perspective of
linguistic analysis, it is shown that Portuguese adverbial structures illustrate
the iconic nature of language and that their conceptual meaning can be
explained by notions such as prominence, mental spaces, control and