"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
The cross-linguistic differences documented in studies of relative clause attachment offer an invaluable opportunity to examine a particular aspect of bilingual sentence processing: Do bilinguals process their two languages as if they were monolingual speakers of each? This volume provides a review of existing research on relative clause attachment, showing that speakers of languages like English attach relative clauses differently than do speakers of languages like Spanish. Fernández reports the findings of an investigation with monolinguals and bilinguals, tested using speeded ("on-line") and unspeeded ("off-line") methodology, with materials in both English and Spanish. The experiments reveal similarities across the groups when the procedure is speeded, but differences with unspeeded questionnaires: The monolinguals replicate the standard cross-linguistic differences, while bilinguals have language-independent preferences determined by language dominance --- bilinguals process stimuli in either of their languages according to the general preferences of monolinguals of their dominant language.
Table of contents
List of tables ix List of figures xiii List of appendixes xv Abstract xvii Foreword xix Introduction 1–4 Cross-linguistic differences in sentence processing: The relative clause attachment ambiguity 5–66 Language dependency and bilingual sentence processing 67–96 Materials evaluation: uality control for experimental sentences 97–124 Monolingual experimental data on relative clause attachment preferences 125–159 Bilingual experimental data on relative clause attachment preferences 161–209 Conclusions 211–220 Appendixes 221–271 References 273–284 Author index 285–288 Subject index 289–292