"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
"The Acquisition of German: Introducing Organic Grammar" brings together
work on the acquisition of German from over four decades of child L1 and
immigrant L2 learner studies. The book’s major feature is new longitudinal
data from three secondary school students who began an exchange year in
Germany with no German knowledge and attained fluency. Their naturalistic
acquisition process - with a succession of stages described for the first time
in L2 acquisition - is highly similar to that of younger learners. This has
important implications for German teaching and for the theory of Universal
Grammar and acquisition. Organic Grammar, a variant of generative syntax,
is offered as a practical alternative to Chomsky’s Minimalism. The analysis
focuses on extensive monthly samples of the three students’ German
development in an input-rich environment. Similar to previous studies, the
teenagers build syntactic structure from the bottom up. Two acquired correct
word order by the end of the year, the third, who had greater conscious
awareness of German grammar, had a divergent route of development,
suggesting that language awareness can alter a natural developmental path.
The results are addressed in light of recent debates in child-adult differences.