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Voice Quality

By John H. Esling, Scott R. Moisik, Allison Benner, Lise Crevier-Buchman

Voice Quality "The first description of voice quality production in forty years, this book provides a new framework for its study: The Laryngeal Articulator Model. Informed by instrumental examinations of the laryngeal articulatory mechanism, it revises our understanding of articulatory postures to explain the actions, vibrations and resonances generated in the epilarynx and pharynx."


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Let's Talk

By David Crystal

Let's Talk "Explores the factors that motivate so many different kinds of talk and reveals the rules we use unconsciously, even in the most routine exchanges of everyday conversation."



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Dissertation Information


Title: Calunga, an Afro-Brazilian Speech of the Triângulo Mineiro: Its grammar and history Add Dissertation
Author: Steven Byrd Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Institution: University of Texas at Austin, Department of Spanish and Portuguese
Completed in: 2005
Linguistic Subfield(s): Historical Linguistics;
Subject Language(s): Portuguese
Director(s): Armin Schwegler
Carlos Solé
Orlando Kelm
Fritz Hensey

Abstract: Calunga is an Afro-Brazilian “secret language” spoken mainly in and around Patrocínio, a rural city located in the region of the Triângulo Mineiro in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Labeled linguistically as a falar africano (‘Afro-Brazilian speech’), the sociolinguistic origins of Calunga are not clear, not even to its speakers, though some theories trace the speech to the 18th century quilombos (‘maroon slave communities’) of the Triângulo Mineiro or to the Afro-Brazilian tropeiros (‘cowboys’) of the sertão mineiro (‘outback of Minas Gerais’). Today, this speech community exists in a moribund state with generally older speakers that number in the hundreds, located mostly in or around the city of Patrocínio, though the language has been reported to exist
elsewhere in and around the region. Even though its origins and evolution is unclear, Calunga speech has shifted grammatically in the direction of the regional variety of Brazilian Portuguese Vernacular – popularly termed caipira (‘bumpkin’) Portuguese - demonstrating a stage toward language change, language attrition, or even language death. Its current lexicon, however, points to three possible Bantu languages from the Congo/Angola region of West Africa: Kimbundu, Umbundu, and Kikongo.

The purpose of this dissertation, therefore, is to discuss the linguistic origins of Calunga; to describe its linguistic patterns; and finally to analyze its linguistic relation to the local contemporary variety of Brazilian Portuguese Vernacular in search of any possible African linguistic influences on the regional Portuguese.