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Adventures in English Syntax

By Robert Freidin

Adventures in English Syntax "this book will enrich your understanding of English in ways that will make you a more effective user of the language."

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Modality Across Syntactic Categories

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Modality Across Syntactic Categories "Chapters in the book demonstrate that modality involves many more syntactic categories and levels of syntactic structure than traditionally assumed."

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Dissertation Information

Title: The Hypothetical System in Turkish : From Morphosyntax to Enunciation Add Dissertation
Author: Selim Yilmaz Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Institution: Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris III, Department of French and Latin Literature and Linguistics
Completed in: 2000
Linguistic Subfield(s): Syntax;
Subject Language(s): Turkish
Director(s): Mary-Annick Morel

Abstract: This thesis presents a distributional study of the hypothetical structures in contemporary Turkish spoken in Turkey. Hypotheticals systematically contain the explicit marker “-sE”: this suffix is always associated with a predicate (verbal or nominal) placed at the end of the protasis (P1). We analyzed the predicative relation between the protasis and apodosis in the relational system between two propositions (P1~P2). This relation is essentially manifested by modo-temporal markers which show the link between the hypothetical and the other modalities (obligatory, optative, assertive, etc.). On the whole, our analytical and interpretative method is founded upon three perspectives: morpho-syntax, intonation, and enunciation. Morpho-syntax is the starting point, the objective is to determine hypothetical categories through their intonative and enunciative values. In order to accomplish this we collected a large corpus of dialogue, the transcription of which afforded around one hundred hypotheticals with “-sE”. Seeing the importance of the context, all hypotheticals were studied within quite lengthy utterances. This study is composed of three parts: 1) Typology of Turkish and of spontaneous oral utterances, 2) Standard hypotheticals with “-sE”, 3) Hypotheticals in “-sE” and other operations. This thesis shows that the hypothetical system of Turkish not only uses a relational system (function of “-sE”), but also illustrates the functions of three syntactic positions: initial position (ligator), central position (pause), and final position (predicate / intonation): whence the complementarity of the markers on different planes. It is effectively these three syntactic positions - especially the last – which will define the enunciative value of the hypothetical, and show the enunciator’s attitude toward the other (co-enunciation / co-locution).