Publishing Partner: Cambridge University Press CUP Extra Publisher Login

New from Cambridge University Press!


On the Offensive

By Karen Stollznow

On the Offensive " This book sheds light on the derogatory phrases, insults, slurs, stereotypes, tropes and more that make up linguistic discrimination. Each chapter addresses a different area of prejudice: race and ethnicity; gender identity; sexuality; religion; health and disability; physical appearance; and age."

E-mail this page 1

We Have a New Site!

With the help of your donations we have been making good progress on designing and launching our new website! Check it out at!
***We are still in our beta stages for the new site--if you have any feedback, be sure to let us know at***

Dissertation Information

Title: Jammu and Kashmir Burushaski: Language, language contact, and change Add Dissertation
Author: Sadaf Munshi Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Institution: University of Texas at Austin, Department of Linguistics
Completed in: 2006
Linguistic Subfield(s): Language Documentation; Sociolinguistics;
Subject Language(s): Burushaski
Director(s): Anthony Woodbury
Megan Crowhurst
Ian Hancock
Samuel Walters
Patrick Olivelle

Abstract: The region stretching along the Kashmir province of the state of Jammu &
Kashmir in India and the Northern Areas region of Pakistan is home to great
ethno-linguistic diversity. The impetus for conducting a study on the
Burushaski language in the valley of Kashmir came from the realization that
the community, although invisible (roughly 300 speakers) within the broad
Kashmiri society (over 4 million speakers), has succeeded in maintaining a
separate identity –- social and linguistic. Having lived in Srinagar for
over a century, Jammu & Kashmir Burushos have very well stood the pressures
of linguistic assimilation and language loss. No study has been carried on
the language of the Jammu & Kashmir Burushos so far.

This study provides a structural description of Jammu & Kashmir Burushaski
- an undocumented variety of Burushaski, and analyzes the various forms of
linguistic interference since its split from the parent dialects in
Pakistan. It covers the various linguistic consequences of contact such as:
borrowing, innovation, and simplification of linguistic features
characterizing Jammu & Kashmir Burushaski. Changes are studied at lexical,
phonological, and morpho-syntactic levels. My synchronic description of the
grammar is concerned with the structural properties of the language.
Grammatical description is preceded by an introduction of various speech
forms in context which emphasizes the importance of a discourse-centered
approach followed in this study. My approach to the study of
contact-induced change is based on an analytical framework following
Thomason & Kaufman (1988) and Thomason (2001). The study also discusses
some theoretical implications of the research outcomes. It presents a
unique situation in which linguistic outcomes of contact are reflected via
a complex interplay of various factors involving simultaneous contact with
two languages viz., Kashmiri and Urdu, each affecting the language in a
specific way – lexical borrowing from Urdu and structural borrowing from
Kashmiri. This is explained in terms of two important factors: (i) language
ideology in terms of a “native language” versus an “extra-native MATRIX”,
and (ii) within the non-native matrix, a hierarchy of social prestige
associated with each of the two non-native languages.