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Voice Quality

By John H. Esling, Scott R. Moisik, Allison Benner, Lise Crevier-Buchman

Voice Quality "The first description of voice quality production in forty years, this book provides a new framework for its study: The Laryngeal Articulator Model. Informed by instrumental examinations of the laryngeal articulatory mechanism, it revises our understanding of articulatory postures to explain the actions, vibrations and resonances generated in the epilarynx and pharynx."


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Let's Talk

By David Crystal

Let's Talk "Explores the factors that motivate so many different kinds of talk and reveals the rules we use unconsciously, even in the most routine exchanges of everyday conversation."



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Dissertation Information


Title: Context Effects in Spoken Word Recognition of English and German by Native and Non-native Listeners Add Dissertation
Author: Robert Felty Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Homepage: http://robfelty.com
Institution: University of Michigan, Department of Linguistics
Completed in: 2007
Linguistic Subfield(s): Morphology; Phonology; Psycholinguistics; Cognitive Science;
Subject Language(s): English
German
Director(s): Robert Kyes
Patrice Beddor
José Benki
Andries Coetzee

Abstract: Spoken word recognition involves integrating acoustic/auditory information
extracted from the signal with linguistic knowledge, including sentential
and discourse context, as well as the frequency of the words in the signal,
and the similarity of target words to other words in the mental lexicon.
Recent research on visual word recognition has shown that morphology may
also affect lexical access, and that the effects of morphology on lexical
access may be language-specific. This study investigates the effect of
morphology on spoken word recognition using two languages which share many
phonological characteristics but differ in key aspects of morphological
structure.

Four separate experiments investigated open-set spoken word recognition in
noise using English and German disyllabic words and nonwords, testing both
native and non-native listeners of each language. Results from native
listeners showed facilitatory effects of lexical status and lexical
frequency, as well as inhibitory effects of neighborhood density,
consistent with previous studies using English CVC stimuli. In addition,
the results showed a processing advantage for monomorphemic words over
bimorphemic words, indicating that morphology also has an influence on
spoken word recognition. The processing advantage of monomorphemes was
greater for native listeners of German than of English, which is taken as
evidence that the morphological structure of the language plays a key role
in the influence of morphology on spoken word recognition. Results from
non-native listener experiments were largely consistent with the native
listener results, suggesting that non-native listeners are sensitive to the
same context effects as native listeners, although the size of the context
effects were generally somewhat smaller for non-native listeners,
suggesting that the amount of exposure to a language can also affect
processing.

No current models of spoken word recognition can account for all of the
effects found in this study. Full storage models cannot account for effects
of morphology, while morphological decomposition models cannot account for
neighborhood density effects. Therefore, a revised version of the
Neighborhood Activation Model (Luce & Pisoni, 1998) of spoken word
recognition is proposed which posits that words are stored whole in the
lexicon, and that in addition to orthographic, phonological, semantic, and
frequency information, lexical entries also contain morphological information.