|Title:||The Persian System of Politeness and the Persian Folk Concept of Face, with Some Reference to EFL Teaching to Iranian Native Speakers||Add Dissertation|
|Author:||Sofia Koutlaki||Update Dissertation|
|Email:||click here to access email|
|Institution:||Cardiff University, Centre for Language and Communication|
|Linguistic Subfield(s):||Applied Linguistics; Pragmatics;|
|Abstract:||Given that politeness in Persian, as understood by native speakers, has a very strong normative aspect, Fraser's (1975) and Fraser and Nolen's (1981) formulation of a Conversational Contract (CC) among speakershas been adopted. According to the Persian Conversational Contract (PCC), participants in an interaction will direct their verbal and non-verbal behaviour towards maintaining and enhancing each other's face.
Strategies of face maintenance and enhancement are classified under the maxims of Deference, Humility and Cordiality (adapted from Leech 1981)and realised through specific ritual courtesy strategies, which are labeled 'ta'arof' in Persian folk reminology.
The concept of face in Persian consists of two folk notions, 'shakhsiyat' (personality, character, honour, self-respect, social standing) and 'ehteram'(honour, respect,,esteem, dignity). The thesis argues that an individual adopts politeness strategies in Persian in order to manifest his/her 'ehteram' and at the same time to maintain and enhance all interlocutors' 'shakhsiyat'. In other words, facework in Persian is said to have a strong phatic aspect (Malinowski 1923, Laver 1975).
Drawing on the work of Brown and Levinson, this thesis argues that their model of politeness (1978,1987) cannot account satisfactorily for the Persian data and that a more wide-ranging framework ulilising the work of Fraser (1975, 1990), Fraser and Nolen (1981), Leech (1983) and Mao (1994) needs to be introduced here to present a more complete picture of Persian notions of face and politeness.
The thesis offers suggestions for the design and production of teaching materials for Iranian EFL students, incorporating the information on the cultural differences between English and Persian with regards to politeness.