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Voice Quality

By John H. Esling, Scott R. Moisik, Allison Benner, Lise Crevier-Buchman

Voice Quality "The first description of voice quality production in forty years, this book provides a new framework for its study: The Laryngeal Articulator Model. Informed by instrumental examinations of the laryngeal articulatory mechanism, it revises our understanding of articulatory postures to explain the actions, vibrations and resonances generated in the epilarynx and pharynx."


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Let's Talk

By David Crystal

Let's Talk "Explores the factors that motivate so many different kinds of talk and reveals the rules we use unconsciously, even in the most routine exchanges of everyday conversation."



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Dissertation Information


Title: The Lexical Reanalysis of N-words and the Loss of Negative Concord in Standard English Add Dissertation
Author: Amel Kallel Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Institution: University of Reading, Linguistics
Completed in: 2005
Linguistic Subfield(s): Historical Linguistics; Linguistic Theories; Sociolinguistics; Syntax;
Subject Language(s): English
Director(s): Anthony Kroch
Susan Pintzuk
Anthony Warner
Richard Ingham

Abstract: The Loss of Negative Concord (NC) has long been attributed to external
factors. This study re-addresses this issue and provides evidence for the
failure of certain external factors to account for the observed decline and
ultimate disappearance of NC in Standard English. A detailed study of
Negation in Late Middle and Early Modern English reveals that the process
of decline of NC was a case of a natural change, preceded by a period of
variation. Variation existed not only on the level of speech community as a
whole, but also within individual speakers (contra Lightfoot 1991). A close
study of n-indefinites in negative contexts and their ultimate replacement
with Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) in a number of grammatical environments
shows that the decline of NC follows the same pattern across contexts in a
form of parallel curvature, which indicates that the loss of NC is a
natural process. This study reveals that the decline takes place at the
same rate in all observed contexts. A context constancy effect is obtained
across all contexts indicating that the loss of NC is triggered by a change
in a single underlying parameter setting. Accordingly, a theory-internal
explanation is suggested. N-words underwent a lexical reanalysis whereby
they acquired a new grammatical feature [+Neg] and were thus reinterpreted
as negative quantifiers, rather than NPIs. This lexical reanalysis was
triggered by the ambiguous status of N-words between [+Neg] and [-Neg] and
thus between single and double negative meanings. This change is treated as
a case of parameter resetting as this lexical reanalysis affected a whole
set of lexical items and can thus economically account for the different
observed surface changes.