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Voice Quality

By John H. Esling, Scott R. Moisik, Allison Benner, Lise Crevier-Buchman

Voice Quality "The first description of voice quality production in forty years, this book provides a new framework for its study: The Laryngeal Articulator Model. Informed by instrumental examinations of the laryngeal articulatory mechanism, it revises our understanding of articulatory postures to explain the actions, vibrations and resonances generated in the epilarynx and pharynx."


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Let's Talk

By David Crystal

Let's Talk "Explores the factors that motivate so many different kinds of talk and reveals the rules we use unconsciously, even in the most routine exchanges of everyday conversation."



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Dissertation Information


Title: Task-Based Computer-Mediated Communication and Negotiated Interaction in an EFL Context Add Dissertation
Author: Ali AlBulushi Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Institution: Lancaster University, BA programmes in Language and Linguistics
Completed in: 2008
Linguistic Subfield(s): Applied Linguistics;
Director(s): Martin Bygate
Diane Wall
Jane Sunderland

Abstract: This study investigates task-based, synchronous computer-mediated
communication (CMC) among EFL learners of English. It specifically explores
(a) how learners negotiate for meaning when they interact in CMC in terms
of frequency of negotiations, its causes, and the phases of resolving
communication breakdown, (b) the relationship between the task type and the
amount of negotiation that transpires, and (c) the learners' perceptions
about their task-based interaction in CMC.

Twenty four non-native–non-native dyads collaboratively completed six
communicative tasks falling under three task types using the chat tool in
Moodle, a network-based course management system. Each dyad completed two
jigsaw tasks, two decision-making tasks, and two information gap tasks.

The interaction scripts reveal that learners do negotiate for meaning in
the CMC environment when communication breaks down. The learners in this
study spent over quarter of their interaction time in negotiating meaning
and resolving communication breakdown. The causes of these negotiations
varied in the chat scripts but they were mainly content and lexical
triggers. Although the negotiation that occurs in the CMC environment
mainly conforms with Varonis and Gass's (1985) NfM model, the observed
differences call for a new model of computer-mediated negotiation. This new
model is presented as a more accurate tool for charting computer-mediated
negotiation. Furthermore, as far as the relationship between the task types
is concerned, the results suggested that task type did have an effect on
how much learners negotiated for meaning. The repeated measure analysis of
variance indicates that the decision making task type is more conducive of
NfM compared to the other types. Finally the interview data revealed the
different views the learners held about the tasks and how they influenced
their interaction, language learning, and their CMC. Particularly, the
learners' CMC-related perception data provided better understanding of
their negotiation of meaning.