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Voice Quality

By John H. Esling, Scott R. Moisik, Allison Benner, Lise Crevier-Buchman

Voice Quality "The first description of voice quality production in forty years, this book provides a new framework for its study: The Laryngeal Articulator Model. Informed by instrumental examinations of the laryngeal articulatory mechanism, it revises our understanding of articulatory postures to explain the actions, vibrations and resonances generated in the epilarynx and pharynx."


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Let's Talk

By David Crystal

Let's Talk "Explores the factors that motivate so many different kinds of talk and reveals the rules we use unconsciously, even in the most routine exchanges of everyday conversation."



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Dissertation Information


Title: Conceptual-Associative System in Aboriginal English Add Dissertation
Author: Farzad Sharifian Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Homepage: http://profiles.arts.monash.edu.au/farzad-sharifian/
Institution: Edith Cowan University, Department of Linguistics
Completed in: 2002
Linguistic Subfield(s): Applied Linguistics; Sociolinguistics;
Subject Language(s): English
Director(s): Ian Malcolm
Craig Speelman

Abstract: National measures of achievement among Australian school children suggest that Aboriginal students, considered as a group, are those most likely to end their schooling without achieving minimal acceptable levels of literacy and numeracy. In view of the fact that many Aboriginal students dwell in metropolitan areas and speak English as a first language, many educators have been unconvinced that linguistic and cultural difference have been significant factors in this underachievement. This study explores the possibility that, despite intensive exposure to non-Aboriginal society, Aboriginal students in metropolitan Perth may maintain, through a distinctive variety of English, distinctive conceptualisations which may help to account for their lack of success in education.

The study first develops a model of conceptualisations that emerge at the group level of cognition. The model draws on the notion of distributed representations to depict what are here termed cultural conceptualisations. Cultural conceptualisations are conceptual structures such as schemas and categories that members of a cultural group draw on in approaching experience. The study employs this model with regard to Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students attending schools in the Perth Metropolitan area.

A group of 30 Aboriginal primary school students and a matching group of non-Aboriginal students participated in this study. A research technique called Association-Interpretation was developed to tap into cultural conceptualisations across the two groups of participants. The technique was composed of two phases: a) the ‘association’ phase, in which the participants gave associative responses to a list of 30 everyday words such as ‘home’ and ‘family’, and b) the ‘interpretation’ phase, in which the responses were interpreted from an emic viewpoint and compared within and between the two groups. The informants participated in the task individually.

The analysis of the data provided evidence for the operation of two distinct, but overlapping, conceptual systems among the two cultural groups studied. The two systems are integrally related to the dialects spoken by Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians, that is, Aboriginal English and Australian English. The discrepancies between the two systems largely appear to be rooted in the cultural systems which give rise to these dialects while the overlap between the two conceptual systems appears to arise from several phenomena such as experience in similar physical environments and access to ‘modern’ life style. A number of responses from non-Aboriginal informants suggest a case of what may be termed conceptual seepage, or a permeation of conceptualisations from one group to another due to contact.

It is argued, in the light of the data from this study, that the notions of ‘dialect’ and ‘code-switching’ need to be revisited in that their characterisation has traditionally ignored the level of conceptualisation. It is also suggested that the results of this study have implications for the professional preparation of educators dealing with Aboriginal students.