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Voice Quality

By John H. Esling, Scott R. Moisik, Allison Benner, Lise Crevier-Buchman

Voice Quality "The first description of voice quality production in forty years, this book provides a new framework for its study: The Laryngeal Articulator Model. Informed by instrumental examinations of the laryngeal articulatory mechanism, it revises our understanding of articulatory postures to explain the actions, vibrations and resonances generated in the epilarynx and pharynx."


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Let's Talk

By David Crystal

Let's Talk "Explores the factors that motivate so many different kinds of talk and reveals the rules we use unconsciously, even in the most routine exchanges of everyday conversation."



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Dissertation Information


Title: Temporal Subordination in Discourse Add Dissertation
Author: Beverly Spejewski Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Homepage: http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~spejewsk/
Institution: University of Rochester, Department of Linguistics
Completed in: 1994
Linguistic Subfield(s): Semantics;
Director(s): Gregory Carlson

Abstract: This dissertation develops a theory of temporal subordination, incorporated into a theory of the temporal interpretation of discourse. Temporal subordination occurs when one clause of a discourse (or of a single sentence) sets up the timespan in which a subsequent clause is understood to occur. This is a phenomenon that has been noticed recently by a few people (e.g. G\\'{o}rel Sandstr\\'{o}m, 1993) in relation to a very small set of lexical items, such as {\\it when}. I build on the notion, which has previously been defined only in a very vague way and in relation to a limited and specific set of linguistic structures, and I show that it is a widespread and well-defined phenomenon, and that a theory of the interpretation of temporal subordination can account for a number of discourse phenomena. These include why certain sequences of eventualities (events and states) are restricted to particular temporal interpretations and why certain sequences are not possible. The theory also predicts the kinds of temporal relationships that subsequent clauses can bear to the previously-analyzed clauses. A central notion is that there are only two basic kinds of temporal relationships, sequentiality and subordination, and that all discourses can be analyzed as a combination of these two kinds of relationships. The analysis provides for a hierarchical temporal structure in which events may be seen as being part of another event, as overlapping with other events, and so on.

A tree-type framework similar to that used for rhetorical relations depictions (e.g. Polanyi (1988), Webber (1991)) is used to represent the temporal structure of a sequence of sentences. The structure is dynamic, and it shows the relationship between any two events or sets of events. This framework makes it easy to predict what temporal relationships are possible between the discourse to date and the next clause in the discourse. The theory makes use of the notion of {\\it reference times} as time intervals during which events occur. This is a different notion than the reference times used by Reichenbach (1947), but similar to those employed by Partee (1984) and HJinrichs (1986). Temporal relations are specified between reference times and not between the events themselves.