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Voice Quality

By John H. Esling, Scott R. Moisik, Allison Benner, Lise Crevier-Buchman

Voice Quality "The first description of voice quality production in forty years, this book provides a new framework for its study: The Laryngeal Articulator Model. Informed by instrumental examinations of the laryngeal articulatory mechanism, it revises our understanding of articulatory postures to explain the actions, vibrations and resonances generated in the epilarynx and pharynx."

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Let's Talk

By David Crystal

Let's Talk "Explores the factors that motivate so many different kinds of talk and reveals the rules we use unconsciously, even in the most routine exchanges of everyday conversation."

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Dissertation Information

Title: Clausal Negation: A typological study Add Dissertation
Author: Matti Miestamo Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Institution: University of Helsinki, Department of General Linguistics
Completed in: 2003
Linguistic Subfield(s): Syntax; Typology;

Abstract: The dissertation is a cross-linguistic study of clausal negation. The study is based on a genealogically stratified sample of 297 languages, and focuses on standard negation--the basic structural means languages have for negating declarative verbal main clauses. Standard negation structures are examined in the languages of the sample, and a typological classification of the structural means for expressing standard negation is proposed. The basic distinction in the classification is between symmetric and asymmetric negation. In symmetric negation affirmative and negative structures show no differences in addition to the presence of the negative marker(s), whereas in asymmetric negation there are further structural differences, i.e. asymmetries. A distinction is made between constructional and paradigmatic asymmetry; in constructional asymmetry the negative construction differs structurally from the corresponding affirmative, whereas in paradigmatic asymmetry the correspondences between the members of (verbal etc.) paradigms used in affirmatives and negatives are not one-to-one. Asymmetric negation can be divided into subtypes according to what kinds of structural asymmetries are found: asymmetry in the finiteness of verbal elements (A/Fin), in the marking of reality status (A/NonReal), in the marking of emphasis (A/Emph), and various other kinds of asymmetries in the marking of grammatical categories (A/Cat). Some of these types can be divided into further subtypes. The frequencies of the different types, their correlations with other aspects of negation and with word order, as well as their geographical distributions are examined. Symmetric negation is more frequent in the world's languages than asymmetric negation. Functional motivations are proposed for the structural types. Symmetric negatives are language-internally analogous to the linguistic structure of the affirmative and thus motivated by pressure for cohesion in the system. Asymmetric negation is language-externally analogous to different asymmetries between affirmation and negation on the functional level--the stativity of negation, the discourse context (backgroundedness) of negation, the semantic connection between negation and other conceptualizations of the non-realized. The different subtypes of asymmetric negation have grammaticalized different aspects of the functional asymmetry. Some diachronic developments are also discussed.