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On the Offensive

By Karen Stollznow

On the Offensive " This book sheds light on the derogatory phrases, insults, slurs, stereotypes, tropes and more that make up linguistic discrimination. Each chapter addresses a different area of prejudice: race and ethnicity; gender identity; sexuality; religion; health and disability; physical appearance; and age."



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Dissertation Information


Title: The Syntax and Semantics of Tense-Aspect Stem Participles in Early Rgvedic Sanskrit Add Dissertation
Author: John Lowe Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Homepage: http://users.ox.ac.uk/~shug1472/
Institution: University of Oxford, D.Phil. in Linguistics
Completed in: 2012
Linguistic Subfield(s): Historical Linguistics; Semantics; Syntax;
Subject Language(s): Sanskrit
Language Family(ies): Indo-European
Director(s): Andreas Willi
Elizabeth Tucker

Abstract: In this thesis I investigate the syntax and semantics of tense-aspect stem
participles in the Rgveda, focusing primarily on the data from the earlier
books II–VII and IX, seeking to establish a comprehensive and coherent
analysis of this category within the linguistic system of Rgvedic Sanskrit.
In recent literature tense-aspect stem participles are usually treated as
semantically equivalent to finite verbs wherever possible, but
contradictorily where they differ from finite verbs their adjectival nature
is emphasized. I argue that tense-aspect stem participles are a
fundamentally verbal formation and can be treated as inflectional verb
forms: they are adjectival verbs rather than verbal adjectives. At the same
time, however, they constitute an independent sub-category of verb form
which is not necessarily semantically dependent on corresponding finite stems.

I examine the syntactic and semantic properties of tense-aspect stem
participles both in relation to finite verbal forms and their wider
syntactic context, formalizing the evidence in the framework of
Lexical-Functional Grammar. Consequently I am able to categorize the
syntactic and semantic deviations which many participles exhibit in
comparison to finite verbal forms. I contend that many such forms cannot be
treated synchronically (and sometimes diachronically) as participles, but
form distinct synchronic categories. My analysis permits a considerably
more refined definition of the category of tense-aspect stem participles,
dependent on clear morphological, syntactic and semantic criteria, as
opposed to the usual, purely morphological, definition.

From a diachronic perspective I argue that the category of tense-aspect
stem participles as found in the Rgveda more closely reflects an inherited
Proto Indo-European category of tense-aspect stem participles than is
usually assumed. I also reconsider theoretical treatments of participial
syntax and semantics, and develop a more precise typology of non-finite
verb systems which adequately accounts for Sanskrit participles.