Publishing Partner: Cambridge University Press CUP Extra Publisher Login

New from Cambridge University Press!


Revitalizing Endangered Languages

Edited by Justyna Olko & Julia Sallabank

Revitalizing Endangered Languages "This guidebook provides ideas and strategies, as well as some background, to help with the effective revitalization of endangered languages. It covers a broad scope of themes including effective planning, benefits, wellbeing, economic aspects, attitudes and ideologies."

E-mail this page 1

We Have a New Site!

With the help of your donations we have been making good progress on designing and launching our new website! Check it out at!
***We are still in our beta stages for the new site--if you have any feedback, be sure to let us know at***

Dissertation Information

Title: The Acquisition of Passives in European Portuguese Add Dissertation
Author: Antónia Estrela Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Institution: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PhD in Linguistics
Completed in: 2013
Linguistic Subfield(s): Language Acquisition;
Subject Language(s): Portuguese
Director(s): João Costa
Amália Mendes

Abstract: The aim of this study is to describe the acquisition of passives in
European Portuguese, specifically regarding its comprehension. Many studies
reveal that this construction is acquired late in different languages, both
when production and comprehension are considered.

The apparent cross linguistic delay suggests children's knowledge is
somehow restricted, leading some authors to claim that the difficulties are
due to syntactic maturation (Borer & Wexler 1987; Hirsch & Wexler 2007) or
to the development of thematic role assignment (Fox & Grodzinsky 1998).
Other studies value the importance of the input (Gordon & Chafetz 1990;
Demuth et al. 2010), while others emphasize the pragmatic and discursive
features assigned to the passive (Tomasello 2000; Marchman et al. 1991).
Recently, some important studies point out that the acquisition of the
passive construction is not delayed, arguing that if the felicity
conditions are met, children will not have problems interpreting this
structure, although other factors may be involved (O'Brien et al. 2006;
Thatcher et al. 2008).

This study aims at addressing the lack of systematic data on the
acquisition of passives in European Portuguese. In order to accomplish
that, it presents the results of four pilot studies on the comprehension of
the structure under analysis. The first study is designed to test
comprehension of long and short passive with actional verbs; the second and
third analyze the comprehension of passives with actional and non-actional
verbs; and the fourth assesses whether children distinguish three types of
passive and their different properties (eventive, resultative and stative

First, the results show that four-year- old children can understand
passives with actional verbs, revealing no difference between short and
long passives. Secondly, passives with non-actional verbs are problematic
for children of different age groups and even active sentences with
non-actional verbs are difficult. Thirdly, the analysis of the results of
the fourth experimental study reveals that, at five, children do not show
significant differences in the judgments of grammaticality assigned to
various types of passive, with a performance at the chance level,
contrarily to the performance of six-year-old children. Grammaticality
contrasts are not completely understood by children, but we can already
notice a statistically significant development in the recognition of the
contrast between eventive and stative passives; and resultative and stative

The analysis of an acquisition corpus complete these results, showing that
even before the age of two children produce stative passives, and before
they are three years old they produce eventive and resultative passives.

The study conducted allows us to evaluate the different proposals in the
literature, covering various aspects relevant to the acquisition of passive
structure, a structure in which different factors are involved, justifying
that the processing of various types of the passive construction occurs