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Voice Quality

By John H. Esling, Scott R. Moisik, Allison Benner, Lise Crevier-Buchman

Voice Quality "The first description of voice quality production in forty years, this book provides a new framework for its study: The Laryngeal Articulator Model. Informed by instrumental examinations of the laryngeal articulatory mechanism, it revises our understanding of articulatory postures to explain the actions, vibrations and resonances generated in the epilarynx and pharynx."


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Let's Talk

By David Crystal

Let's Talk "Explores the factors that motivate so many different kinds of talk and reveals the rules we use unconsciously, even in the most routine exchanges of everyday conversation."



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Dissertation Information


Title: Contrastive representations in non-segmental phonology Add Dissertation
Author: Christopher Spahr Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Institution: University of Toronto, Department of Linguistics
Completed in: 2016
Linguistic Subfield(s): Phonology;
Subject Language(s): Basque
Estonian
Papiamento
Tarahumara, Central
Director(s): B. Dresher
Keren Rice
Peter Jurgec
Daniel Hall
Yoonjung Kang

Abstract: This thesis develops and tests a unified model of word-level prosodic contrasts. Traditionally, word prosody has been analyzed within disparate models (such as autosegmental theory for tone, metrical theory for stress, and CV, X-slot, or moraic theory for length), meaning that it has not been possible to make clear predictions about how many different prosodic features can be employed in a single language.

I present a minimal architecture for word prosodic representations based on a single set of formal elements. A tier of segmental root nodes, or X-slots, bears the binary contrastive features that divide the segmental inventory and represents quantity contrasts through two-to-one linking, while a tier of prosodic root nodes, or ''pi-nodes'', bears the binary features dividing the autosegmental inventory. Features on pi-nodes are used in tone languages with more than one tonal autosegment, but in privative tone languages, the pi-node itself reflects the phonetic realization of the marked member of the tone opposition. The same featureless pi-node is used as an autosegmental marker of accented positions in lexical stress systems, where its language-specific phonetic realization is that of stress: some combination of increased pitch, duration, and intensity.

The predictive power of this model is that it restricts systems to a maximum of two independent word prosodic contrasts, since each requires its own tier of root nodes. The pi-tier can represent either tone or accent separately from length on the X-tier, but this leaves no means to represent a third contrast. In certain systems, surface stress may be represented covertly as length on the X-tier with tone represented on the pi-tier, but no mechanism is available to host a third contrast, since the X-tier is already used for stress.