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Revitalizing Endangered Languages

Edited by Justyna Olko & Julia Sallabank

Revitalizing Endangered Languages "This guidebook provides ideas and strategies, as well as some background, to help with the effective revitalization of endangered languages. It covers a broad scope of themes including effective planning, benefits, wellbeing, economic aspects, attitudes and ideologies."



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Dissertation Information


Title: Code-Switching in English Language Classes at Tertiary Institutions in Kano Add Dissertation
Author: Muhammed Abdullahi Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Homepage: http://
Institution: Bayero University Kano, Nigeria, M. A. LINGUISTICS
Completed in: 2018
Linguistic Subfield(s): Sociolinguistics;
Subject Language(s): English
Director(s): Prof. Aisha Ahmad
Dr. Isah Chamo
Dr. Tijjani Almajir
Prof. Murtala Ahmad

Abstract: This study explores the practice of code-switching in English classes at three public tertiary institutions in Kano. The research focuses on the reasons of teachers’ code-switching, functions and linguistic features on the types of code-switching used in English classes. Teachers employ code-switching as a strategy to carry students along due to their poor language proficiency. Ethnography was adopted as methodology and Discourse Analysis approach (D.A) as its theoretical framework. Observation, audio recording and post-observation interviews were employed during the data collection. Data were analyzed based on 10 functions of code-switching by Hoffaman (1991) and Poplack (1980) classification types of code-switching model. The findings reveal that, teachers’ code-switching serve two different functions in English language classes: instructional functions and social functions. Instructional functions include; confirmation and evaluation, clarification, explanation, word equivalence in terms of translation in order to facilitate comprehension. While the social functions include; emotion and humor for establishing social rapport with students and dealing with classroom discipline. All the code-switched utterances employed by teachers were either inter-sentential, intra-sentential or tag switching at word, clause, phrase and sentential levels. Students support teachers’ code-switching in English class and its usage to bridge the linguistic gaps in the area of vocabulary acquisition, translation and explaining difficult terms, new words, idioms and proverbs.