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Voice Quality

By John H. Esling, Scott R. Moisik, Allison Benner, Lise Crevier-Buchman

Voice Quality "The first description of voice quality production in forty years, this book provides a new framework for its study: The Laryngeal Articulator Model. Informed by instrumental examinations of the laryngeal articulatory mechanism, it revises our understanding of articulatory postures to explain the actions, vibrations and resonances generated in the epilarynx and pharynx."

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Let's Talk

By David Crystal

Let's Talk "Explores the factors that motivate so many different kinds of talk and reveals the rules we use unconsciously, even in the most routine exchanges of everyday conversation."

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Dissertation Information

Title: Constraints on the Generation of Referring Expressions: With special reference to Hindi Add Dissertation
Author: Rashmi Prasad Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Institution: University of Pennsylvania, Penn Language Center
Completed in: 2003
Linguistic Subfield(s): Discourse Analysis; Pragmatics;
Subject Language(s): English
Director(s): Aravind Joshi
Ellen Prince
Robin Clark

Abstract: This dissertation makes a progress towards the generation of referring expressions in Hindi. We first make a proposal to exploit a combination of Gricean implicatures (Grice 75) and Centering theory constraints (Grosz et al. 95) to formulate a generation algorithm for referring expressions whose domain of application is defined in terms of the Centering Transitions. The formulated algorithm is an abstraction over the cross-linguistic variability observed across languages. To set the language-specific parameters of the algorithm, in particular the parameter that decides the relative salience of the discourse entities in an utterance, we propose a corpus-based methodology to identify the ways in which discourse salience is realized linguistically in any language. We apply this method to a Hindi corpus to investigate three possible linguistic reflexes of discourse salience: 'grammatical role', 'word order', and 'information status', and show that Hindi does not display exhibit any correlation between discourse salience and either word order or information status, and that grammatical function emerges as the primary determinant of salience. Using the results of the proposed methodology for Hindi, we provide an analysis of Hindi zero pronouns. We argue that the constraints on the use of zeros in Hindi are neither syntactic (Kameyama85) nor explicable purely in terms of the singular notion of the topic (Butt97). Our analysis, provided in terms of Centering transition preferences, shows that pronouns can be dropped in Hindi only when they occur in an utterance following a CONTINUE or a SMOOTH-SHIFT transition, thus demonstrating the importance of the Preferred Center for zero pronoun realization. Finally, with respect to the problem of defining the utterance unit for discourse, we provide an analysis of complex sentences containing relative clauses. We argue that different kinds of relative clauses have different utterance statuses as well as different effects on the hierarchical organization of discourse segments. Non-restrictive relative clauses form a distinct but embedded utterance unit, while restrictives are part of the main clause unit. Our data also provide support for partitioning the class of restrictive relatives into indefinite head and definite head restrictives (Prince 90), with indefinite head restrictives patterning like non-restrictives.