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Revitalizing Endangered Languages

Edited by Justyna Olko & Julia Sallabank

Revitalizing Endangered Languages "This guidebook provides ideas and strategies, as well as some background, to help with the effective revitalization of endangered languages. It covers a broad scope of themes including effective planning, benefits, wellbeing, economic aspects, attitudes and ideologies."

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Dissertation Information

Title: The Sequential Organisation of Teacher-Initiated and Teacher-Induced Code-Switching in a Turkish University EFL Setting Add Dissertation
Author: Eda Ustunel Update Dissertation
Email: click here to access email
Institution: Newcastle University, School of Education Communication & Language Sciences
Completed in: 2004
Linguistic Subfield(s): Applied Linguistics; Language Acquisition;
Subject Language(s): English
Director(s): Paul Seedhouse

Abstract: The study depicts the relationship between pedagogical focus and language choice in the language teaching/learning environment of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) at a Turkish university in Izmir. I present the organisation of code-switching (the use of more than one linguistic variety in the same conversation) which is teacher-initiated and 'teacher-induced' (when the teacher asks for the Turkish equivalent of an English word). A major research gap in the area of code-switching (CS) is a lack of adherence between English-Turkish CS and EFL studies. Eldridge (1996) studied learners' CS in a Turkish secondary school focusing on teachers' attitudes toward CS in the classroom; therefore, his implications are limited to teacher-training. However, in my research, I choose my subjects at the university level, focus on teacher-learner interaction in EFL classrooms, and examine transcripts according to the sequential analysis of conversation analysis (CA).

The data for this study are collected by means of classroom observation. This consists of audio and video-taping lessons from six beginner level English classrooms. Transcripts of the lessons are examined according to the CA method of sequential analysis applying an adapted version of the classic CA question (Why that, right now?) for interaction involving code-switching, which is why that, in that language, right now?

It is found that teachers code-switch in orientation to twelve pedagogical functions: Dealing with procedural trouble, dealing with classroom discipline, expressing the social identity, giving Turkish equivalent, translating into Turkish, dealing with a lack of response in English, providing a prompt for English use, eliciting Turkish or English translation, giving feedback, checking comprehension in English, providing meta-language information, and giving encouragement to participate. It is also found that there is a systematic preference organisation pattern in which teachers code-switch to Turkish to repair trouble when there is a delay in the learner's reply turn of more than one second.

The study supports the claim that first language (L1) is difficult for teachers to avoid, and perhaps more difficult for learners to ignore in the EFL context. Consequently, teaching methods that incorporate L1 in L2 teaching/learning environments are highly recommended.