"Buenos dias", "buenas noches" -- this was the first words in a foreign language I heard in my life, as a three-year old boy growing up in developing post-war Western Germany, where the first gastarbeiters had arrived from Spain. Fascinated by the strange sounds, I tried to get to know some more languages, the only opportunity being TV courses of English and French -- there was no foreign language education for pre-teen school children in Germany yet in those days. Read more
To find some answers Tim Machan explores the language's present and past, and looks ahead to its futures among the one and a half billion people who speak it. His search is fascinating and important, for definitions of English have influenced education and law in many countries and helped shape the identities of those who live in them.
This volume provides a new perspective on the evolution of the special language of medicine, based on the electronic corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts, containing over two million words of medical writing from 1500 to 1700.
Limits on global rules in Optimality Theory with Candidate Chains
In Optimality Theory with Candidate Chains (OT-CC; McCarthy ), candidates are multi-step derivations, and precedence constraints, which regulate the order of derivational steps, can inspect entire candidate derivations. This means that OT-CC opens the door to certain kinds of 'global rules' - that is, effects in which the application or non-application of a process is decided with crucial reference to derivational history. This paper investigates what limits may exist on OT-CC's global rule powers, focusing on two forms of opacity which are possible under a theory where all rules apply simultaneously, but not under sequential rule application: mutual counterfeeding and mutual counterbleeding. It is shown that the original version of OT-CC allows none, but that each of them could be made possible with relatively simple revisions to the original theory. Possible examples of these forms of opacity are discussed.